Founding An Inbreeding-Free Space Colony

  • Published on Nov 12, 2017
  • Thanks to 23AndMe for supporting SciShow. These kits make great gifts, so check out 23AndMe.com/SciShow
    How much genetic diversity would we need to found a colony on another planet?
    Hosted by: Stefan Chin
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    Sources:
    www.newscientist.com/article/dn1936-magic-number-for-space-pioneers-calculated/
    www.popularmechanics.com/space/deep-space/a10369/how-many-people-does-it-take-to-colonize-another-star-system-16654747/
    www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576513004669
    geneticliteracyproject.org/2016/07/05/mars-colonists-need-bring-earth-large-gene-pool/
    www.salon.com/2015/04/12/there_will_be_sex_in_space_mars_science_and_the_dictates_of_biology_and_human_culture/
    www.britannica.com/science/minimum-viable-population
    www.nature.com/scientificamerican/journal/v308/n1/full/scientificamerican0113-38.html
    bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio107/Class%20pdfs/W05_lecture8.pdf
    news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0220_0220_wirelifeinspace_2.html
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1276087/
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2752555/
    www.genome.gov/27561444/iceland-study-provides-insights-into-disease-paves-way-for-largescale-genomic-studies/
    www.researchgate.net/publication/19535182_Observing_the_founder_effect_in_human_evolution
    www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/06/3/l_063_03.html
    investigativegenetics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13323-015-0028-9
    www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/90545
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987173/
    www.nature.com/hdy/journal/v100/n4/full/6801083a.html
    onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00046.x/abstract
    nctc.fws.gov/courses/csp/csp3157/content/resources/pop_viability.pdf
    arxiv.org/pdf/1708.08649.pdf
    www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/10/how-icelands-genealogy-obsession-leads-to-scientific-breakthroughs/381097/
    www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2013/04/18/new-app-helps-icelanders-avoid-accidental-incest/2093649/
    Images:
    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Founder_effect_Illustration.jpg
    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amish_farm_morristown_new_york.jpg
    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ingolf_by_Raadsig.jpg
  • Runtime: 5:18
  • SciShow  science  Hank  Green  education  learn  stefan chin  mars  colony  genetic diversity  founder effect  alleles  effective population size  mutations  interstellar mission  acta astronautica  Founding An Inbreeding-Free Space Colony  

Comments: 1 271

  • Nusheen Tarannum Sara
    Nusheen Tarannum Sara 11 hours ago

    WHY WHY WHY WHY WHY WHY WHY WHY WHY WE MISS OR REMEMBER PAST

  • ceojr1963
    ceojr1963 15 hours ago

    Laughs, but we all know we only came from two individuals................. but if they were prefect humans what is to say that is not correct, we now do not know what prefect is..... we are now just breaking at 100 years old, not at 1,000 years old... food for thought.

  • ceojr1963
    ceojr1963 17 hours ago

    And then you get indiana amish with longer lifespans, and less diabetes.....we think we know a lot then find out we don't..

  • Hieu Nguyen
    Hieu Nguyen 18 hours ago

    Answer is sperm bank. Free freezing in space too

  • john smith
    john smith 20 hours ago

    why not just clean the populations DNA with CRISPR.

  • John Doe
    John Doe Day ago

    23 and me the one that costs 3 x more than ancestry for the exact same thing

  • No You're A Banana

    The problem with NASA getting a colony first is all the genes will originate from Ohio

  • Aaron McLaughlin

    I wonder if that's how or why the tradition of arranged marriages started?

  • Lee_trn
    Lee_trn Day ago

    Ya I definitely read the title as Founding an inbreeding, free space, colony.
    Lol!!!

  • talus talus
    talus talus Day ago +1

    and then we will eventually have WAR - earth VS mars hahaha! for sure! human nature...

  • Elise Putnam
    Elise Putnam 2 days ago

    I don't know why but I appreciate this video so much

  • Ali Najdi
    Ali Najdi 2 days ago

    I am ashamed of you for advertising 23andme, they are not who they say they are, and scishow is smart enough to know that

  • Justin Noker
    Justin Noker 2 days ago

    but... incest is wincest ;-;

  • OMG IT'S A FLY
    OMG IT'S A FLY 2 days ago

    That 4 eyed guy looks inbred

  • Jeromiah Statzer
    Jeromiah Statzer 2 days ago

    I'll make a conjugal visit any day thank you very much

  • nul00000000
    nul00000000 2 days ago

    WAAAIIIT ONE SECOND LITTLE BOY. It has to do with reproducing on Mars. Would just the bacteria we bring and it's future generations be enough to provide a microbiome for the next generation? Or am I being dumb and our microbiome is all there from the time we are born? I don't know I just wanted to point it out.

  • Ricardo Hernández
    Ricardo Hernández 2 days ago

    What about finding an inbreeding-free town in the sout-southeast of america?

  • Luke Evanshen
    Luke Evanshen 2 days ago

    this is not really an issue.. we can just engineer offspring...

  • Mrdresden
    Mrdresden 2 days ago

    Icelander here, and an ex-employee of DeCode who runs that database (as a side gimmick to the genetic research that the company has been doing since '96).

  • Sophie Robinson
    Sophie Robinson 2 days ago

    8 greats grandpa David ap Rhys from Wales

  • MuppetsSh0w
    MuppetsSh0w 2 days ago

    It's strange that while talking about Mars colony no one brings a problem that human body can't grow properly in envoirement with diffrent gravity than earths.

  • orochirel
    orochirel 2 days ago

    What about gravity and the bone and muscle strength of the offsprings of the colony people...

    But more importantly... What about the droid attack on the wookies?

  • orochirel
    orochirel 2 days ago

    What about gravity and the bone and muscle strength of the offsprings of the colony people...

    But more importantly... What about the droid attack on the wookies?

  • Duchesse de Berne
    Duchesse de Berne 2 days ago

    Just take some sperm to Mars

  • Osiris Malkovich
    Osiris Malkovich 2 days ago

    Radical idea: send only women and a huge diversity of sperm samples. They can grow their own men there and each woman can have several children from different fathers.

  • kada0601
    kada0601 2 days ago

    Easy, just genetically modify the embryos of space couples.

  • Sean McGrew
    Sean McGrew 3 days ago

    QUESTION; is it worth getting a flu shot?
    I was wondering how it works. I was recently told that if you get a shot, it may not even cover the strain that comes this year....?
    If I had no shot and ended up contracting "the flu" would my body build up a natural immunity to that strain and I would be less susceptible to it if that particular strain ever came back around? If so it would seem unwise to get a shot because your body would never build a resistance..?
    I understand as well that when people say "the flu" or inFLUenza virus, this possibly refers to Two different effects.(sinus and fever versus vomiting)
    So what is really in a "flu" shot, (hopefully not Ice Tea or mind controlling agents), and is it worth it!?
    Sincerely,
    Paranoid suspicions
    Post Script: I really hate needles!

  • NewFossil
    NewFossil 3 days ago

    You're assuming that lower gravity will not negatively affect pregnancy. Biologically our bodies are programmed to work with earth gravity. In other words this whole video was just created to lead into your sponsor and that didn't give us anything "sciencey".

  • Trance Kowhai
    Trance Kowhai 3 days ago

    arranged marriage is your answer, dont need those thousands, just need that 200

  • suteners2111
    suteners2111 3 days ago

    they will all die from weaker gravity and killing each other and radiation.

  • Gabrielle Rouleau
    Gabrielle Rouleau 3 days ago

    23 and Me or Ancestry DNA tests don't tell you where your ancestors come from. They just compare your DNA to the DNA of other people in their databases. That isn't the same thing. As a science channel you should really know the difference and explain it to your viewers. You could take the tests of different companies and obtain different results because they have different databases.

  • CivilCIA
    CivilCIA 3 days ago

    hmmmm 0 g sex....sound fun!

  • Mr Slinky dragon
    Mr Slinky dragon 3 days ago

    if each country sent 50 of the original/most popular race (russia sends ethnic russians, uk sends ethnic causcasian english and south afric send ethnic zulu for example) then there would be a wide mix of genes right off the bat! then if theres are many more eggs and sperm preserved then there shouldnt be excusses for going lannister on your sister!

  • Kyra Zimmer
    Kyra Zimmer 3 days ago

    always funny to hear the introduction "SciShow is supported by the thing that takes science and a shitload of money to turn it into racist snake oil" -_-

  • ZorroDood
    ZorroDood 3 days ago

    Did he just casually mention the origin story of dwarves?

  • Adam Kelly
    Adam Kelly 3 days ago

    Lol, please upload my generic sequence to the same servers that Equifax uses so the identity thieves don't have to hack multiple systems.

  • eerereps
    eerereps 3 days ago +1

    very informative, Thanks!

  • oda d
    oda d 3 days ago

    Or you can send one person and a lot of cats

  • Travis Collier
    Travis Collier 3 days ago

    Or we could engineer in some extra heterozygosity, like some folks are currently working on for some critically endangered non-human species here on Earth.
    reviverestore.org/

  • S. Smith
    S. Smith 3 days ago

    Two words for diversity: Radiation Dosing.

  • James McTrollington
    James McTrollington 3 days ago

    I have no idea how genetics work, but would sending a very racially diverse group of people help?

  • J Seigle
    J Seigle 3 days ago

    How about NO

  • Tyler Nicholas
    Tyler Nicholas 3 days ago

    Everything from Space anime will become true.

  • 88smileandnod
    88smileandnod 4 days ago

    What would be the ethics of sending in-stasis embryos along with initial settlers of said colony? Assuming that the original group is all of reproductive age and in good health, and that the means for implanting embryos is available.

  • Umbreona
    Umbreona 4 days ago

    this guy is respectable unlike olivia

  • VAPOR WAVE IS LIFE

    6-8 weeks?! lol no.

  • Craig DeBlock
    Craig DeBlock 4 days ago

    The sperm and egg banks solve the problem pretty easily.

  • sicktoaster
    sicktoaster 4 days ago

    Instead of leaving it to nature why not use gene editing? Take a genetic bank along with you so there are more genes available for inserting in the lab. After removing any disease genes use an algorithm each time a new child is to be born to edit genes in a way as to achieve a certain degree of genetic diversity. I'm not sure what the ideal there would be. If there aren't any drawbacks to too much genetic diversity then the algorithm could make sure that every gene is used with roughly equal frequency.
    Alternatively the mere presence of the genes in the bank may be enough to safeguard the colony. If there ever is an infection which would be defeated more easily if the colonists' genes were tweaked scientists could study the disease, determine the gene, and just copy it from the gene bank and edit everyone's genome or give them the proteins that the gene produces (which ever turned out to be more effective and resource efficient).

  • sinephase
    sinephase 4 days ago

    you'd think it would be easy to calculate. pretty interesting, really :)

  • Joseph Stalin
    Joseph Stalin 4 days ago

    Just don't send in the habsburgs

  • Michael Fox
    Michael Fox 4 days ago

    Just send babies, like in alien.

  • Wernbread
    Wernbread 4 days ago

    "Dark they were, and golden eyed"

  • Billie Smothers
    Billie Smothers 4 days ago

    I will go to mars and reproduce asexualy

  • Adam Ali
    Adam Ali 4 days ago

    simple solution, just send rednecks

  • Raymond K Petry
    Raymond K Petry 4 days ago +1

    ...not a really scientific articulation lacks Heinlein's line-marriage genetic-diversification...
    ...p.s. if you spit into a DNA app [04:52] do your results come back filet-mignon-positive...
    ...p.p.s. is that pseudo acoustic tile motif, effective, soundproofing for video production...

  • Shawn Begley
    Shawn Begley 4 days ago +1

    One dude with a freezer full of eggs could pull it off

    • bandrukesucks
      bandrukesucks Day ago

      LOL Alabama in space. Watch out for those space sheriffs.

    • Jason S Savitt
      Jason S Savitt 2 days ago

      Shawn Begley All of the offspring would be siblings, that's not how you create a inbreeding free colony, that's how you recreate Alabama in space

  • Shawn Begley
    Shawn Begley 4 days ago +1

    F*** you in bread gook

  • Idgarad Lyracant
    Idgarad Lyracant 4 days ago

    I'm gonna just put this out here, the number might be around 144,000. I gotta gut feeling some thinkers a few thousand years ago thought about that number.

  • Gaehhn
    Gaehhn 4 days ago

    68 weeks to get the results? That's almost a year and a four months.

  • WoebringerofDoom
    WoebringerofDoom 4 days ago

    hoe deee yallah welkume 2 warst marz.

  • Oliver Taveras
    Oliver Taveras 4 days ago

    By the time we get to mars crispr will be so advanced that this won't be a problem

  • MumfordnSons77
    MumfordnSons77 4 days ago

    23 and me is pretty much a scam. I've talked with a couple of geneticists and they have told me about how it doesn't work and it's only a money hole. Don't buy into it please.

  • Ysp
    Ysp 4 days ago

    Do Icelandic people play the Keven Bacon game, but is it named the Bjork game there? j/k

  • PBNkapamilya
    PBNkapamilya 4 days ago

    How to avoid inbreeding in Mars? Simple: Don't bring in people from Alabama and Mississippi 😂

  • ankush kumar
    ankush kumar 4 days ago

    Make a video on bone marrow

  • Neb88
    Neb88 4 days ago

    Fk incest is hot let me sign up for that!

  • Mike O
    Mike O 4 days ago

    I think the ability to end aging will become reality before we have to worry about interstellar space travel making this issue null.

  • Mike O
    Mike O 4 days ago

    Can't we work on an inbreeding-free Alabama first?

  • jacob groves
    jacob groves 4 days ago +1

    I can't believe people are discussing the morality of incest. Hey idiots, here is your answer. Incest is bad. Don't do it.

  • jacob groves
    jacob groves 4 days ago

    Your hear that people, it means no red necks allowed

  • Moist Twerk Fart
    Moist Twerk Fart 4 days ago

    Bring a bunch of sperm samples from earth on ice so that you can bring genetic diversity and offer people an option

  • Let's see how long usernames can get,I guess they can pretty damn long like really long

    Uh this test costs $100 to do, that's too much.

  • areamusicale
    areamusicale 4 days ago

    Why do you even consider such BS ???
    Seriously ... WTF !

  • Camille M.
    Camille M. 4 days ago +3

    Where do things go when they get in your eye?

  • npeq93
    npeq93 4 days ago

    Incest Prevention Tool is my favorite band

  • Abduallah elsayed
    Abduallah elsayed 4 days ago +1

    Where my Orson Scott Card fans at?!

  • jeremy jacobite
    jeremy jacobite 4 days ago

    I wonder why he omitted Jewish inbreeding practices & the prevalence of Tay-Sachs disease in their communities. www.jewishgeneticdiseases.org/diseases/tay-sachs-disease/

  • Boer een
    Boer een 4 days ago

    Imagine sending your sperm to mars... what an accomplishment

  • Lun Hing
    Lun Hing 4 days ago +3

    I volunteer to Breed on Mars

  • Zachary Roff-Smith
    Zachary Roff-Smith 4 days ago

    "And it's more than just a incest prevention tool"

  • Yusen Ye
    Yusen Ye 4 days ago

    Why not bring all women grew and bring a lot of frozen sperm and egg form a lot diverse group of people

  • Christopher Ellis
    Christopher Ellis 4 days ago

    One: avoid parallel cousins.
    Two: have an eight fold totem system.

  • Michael Vernon Davis

    "I don't have an Uncle Joe." 🤣

  • Emma SpAce
    Emma SpAce 4 days ago

    WHERE IS THE ICELANDIC TREE, I need it for research on my fam.

  • Paris Loan
    Paris Loan 4 days ago

    Is this it? Your talking about sending people to live in sapce ! It is a useless discussion

  • Brendyn Daugherty
    Brendyn Daugherty 4 days ago

    What about their progress with crisper?

  • Minhao Lee
    Minhao Lee 4 days ago +1

    Space sex

  • Shadowtechnik
    Shadowtechnik 4 days ago

    Nice selling out to 23 and me, Unsubscribed

  • NLPrometheus
    NLPrometheus 4 days ago

    The gene pool, the only thing where lack of diversity is actually a problem.

  • 2ossy
    2ossy 4 days ago

    Genetic engineering...

  • xxTyphoid
    xxTyphoid 4 days ago

    Don't use 23 and me. They own your DNA forever once you send it in

  • Gerard Newell
    Gerard Newell 4 days ago

    and now there are no Dutch in Africa or Amish in Pennsylvania.

  • arrozblanco7
    arrozblanco7 4 days ago

    High quality program.....sims

  • Vader
    Vader 4 days ago

    Here is the thing. If you want to send a one way mission to colonize a planet then you send all women and a stock pile of sperm. Especially if the number of occupants is limited to the mission. If they could control it, they should pick sperm that would result in a female to be born until the supply of freeze dried daddy was low.

  • Mikayla Eckel Cifrese

    What about the ethical issues with conceiving children artificially, especially if the children will never have a chance to meet their biological parents? You should have at least mentioned that in the video.

  • RenegadePizzaGuy
    RenegadePizzaGuy 4 days ago

    My God. He actually pronounced Afrikaner correctly. I am humbled

  • Realmwalker
    Realmwalker 4 days ago

    Earth is Flat so yeah... irrelevant.

  • ed denz
    ed denz 4 days ago

    Just bring frozen sperm and artificially inseminate

  • Thaedris
    Thaedris 4 days ago

    How do these number estimates change if you don't assume monogamy?

  • neosomato hypergenesis

    AHEM even with human so called random mating on earth genetic disease persists