Pilot´s alphabet history explained by Captain Joe

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  • Published on Apr 17, 2016
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    Back in the early days of aviation radio communication wasn´t as clear as it is today. Antennas picked up all sorts of static noises which made it difficult to understand the transmitter at the receiving end.
    So in the 1950´s, the ICAO (The International Civil Aviation Organization) developed a so called „spelling alphabet“ or „phonetic alphabet“.
    The whole idea of developing this alphabet was to reduce misunderstandings whilst communicating via radio and to standardize one spelling alphabet for the entire aviation industry at the time.
    The final choice of code words for the letters of the alphabet was made after hundreds of thousands of comprehension tests involving many different nationalities to agree on 26 codewords for the 26 letters in the alphabet which are the most least similar to each other when being pronounced.
    I´ll give you an example. When you transmit a message containing letters and numbers, you use the spelling alphabet to avoid confusions, because many letters sound very similar, for example the letter „M“ and „N“ or „B“ and „D“.
    If you would have to read back this clearance, „proceed to beacon MIQ“ you could mistake M for the letter N, so therefore the air traffic controller will say, „proceed to beacon Mike-India-Quebec“ to minimize the chance of misunderstanding.
    Similar solution with numbers.
    For example, the air traffic controllers very often give you clearances like: „Speedbird-125-Hotel climb flight level two five zero, free speed“ you could mix up the „free“ with the english number three, so therefore the three is pronounced as „tree“ like the english word for tree. The same goes for the number „nine“, nine sounds like the german word „nein“, which means „no“, therefore you pronounce the number nine as „niner“.
    Also important, numbers are always pronounced separately, for example, „climb flight level „tree-niner-zero“" instead of „climb flight level three hundred and ninety“.
    Of course exceptions prove the rule, for example Flight level 100/200/300 are pronounced Flight level 100/200/300 and airline callsigns can be „EasyJet one-hundred Xray“ or „Lufthansa Triple-six two“.
    I hope I was able to answer this aviation related question for you, and I´ve uploaded another video where you can practice the spelling alphabet with pictures relating to the coded letter. Make sure to check it out !
  • Science & TechnologyScience & Technology

Comments • 201

  • Josip Vrandecic
    Josip Vrandecic Month ago

    Captain Joe..... we all love you.

  • Iesha Shahien
    Iesha Shahien 2 months ago

    I’m in alpha and used to be in bravo

  • Alex Thoppil
    Alex Thoppil 2 months ago

    My favorite car brand is AR

  • Alex Thoppil
    Alex Thoppil 2 months ago

    I bet there was a Shakespeare fan in the ICAO.

  • Judhastian Seba
    Judhastian Seba 3 months ago

    Captain even i am not educated as well others but i like to learn about flights and thank you Captain for your explanations of l.

  • Melvi Fong
    Melvi Fong 3 months ago

    Hey Cpt Joe, what are the benefits of anhedral wings? maybe a comparison between anhedral and dihedral wings?

  • lminus niguyen
    lminus niguyen 4 months ago

    nine er, no wonder why my atc game i was playing said runway zero nine er

  • Dawson Mai
    Dawson Mai 4 months ago

    Lol Tree=3

  • Dawson Mai
    Dawson Mai 4 months ago

    Can you show us how to start an A320?

  • Kaloian Darvov
    Kaloian Darvov 5 months ago

    Joe you still haven't uoaded video how did the engine works

  • searchfortech
    searchfortech 5 months ago

    Same for the maritime fleet

  • Free Movies
    Free Movies 6 months ago

    WHICH COMPANY DO YOU FLY FOR ? AND ARE ATA CODES NECESSARY FOR BEING A PILOT

  • Serhat Yüngül
    Serhat Yüngül 7 months ago

    Imagine 2 pilots apply for a job. One has for example 5000 flight hours. The other one has for example 3000 flight hours but he/she experianced some failures ( because of things that he/she can’t control like bird strikes ), and he/she successfuly has done what he/she supposed to have done. Which one would the company choose?

  • Marie BCFHS
    Marie BCFHS 7 months ago

    999999

  • Marie BCFHS
    Marie BCFHS 7 months ago

    Nein! Nein! Nein! Nein! Nein! Nein!

  • David Sanchez Plaza
    David Sanchez Plaza 7 months ago

    I think here is best place for my question. how can u really understand what atc says?most times i can barely distinguish what they say in the videos (e.g. your intro).I assume once u know.what u expect to.hear is easy, but yeah. mistery for me. last "stupid" question: people with glasses CAN OR CANNOT become pilots. I heard no, but want to confirm. Ive seen all your ideos, thanks!

  • Lobzang Dorjay
    Lobzang Dorjay 8 months ago

    thanks captain juliet oscar echo.

  • Lobzang Dorjay
    Lobzang Dorjay 8 months ago +1

    that's why i, love the phonetic alphabets of aviation, a lot.

  • vinayak cb
    vinayak cb 8 months ago

    Captain , please make a detailed video of radio communication types , the frequency changes and intercom on board communication

  • Evan Dickson
    Evan Dickson 8 months ago

    Just practicing ATC stuff. The "tree" one was very interesting. Thanks for sharing.

  • Lavly Akter
    Lavly Akter 8 months ago

    Really,your smile is s❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤ cute.i like your channel.....And i also subscribe &share your channel......

  • sandeep chauhan
    sandeep chauhan 9 months ago

    Hi Joe. I have a question that do every aircraft have an emergency rescue parachute for both pilot and assistant pilot?

  • 양념 양념
    양념 양념 9 months ago

    Yes!!!! The most curious question was solved by captain joe

  • Samruddha Mane
    Samruddha Mane 10 months ago

    Sir please give us a basic information of step by step u start for taxi and takeoff full procedure please sir

  • Sébastien Dobbelaere
    Sébastien Dobbelaere 10 months ago +1

    I was always wondering why pilots pronounce 9 and 3 like that, thank you Joe!

  • czesiek77PL
    czesiek77PL 10 months ago

    @Captain Joe How is the Flight level choosed?

  • Liam O’Donnell
    Liam O’Donnell 11 months ago

    Omg CaptainJoe I have to be your BIGGEST FAN. All of my aviation experiences and even applying for an RPL, PPL and now the CPL, have been inspired by you. Thankyou so much!

  • Abhinav Yadav
    Abhinav Yadav 11 months ago +1

    Seems like Joe is also a fan of 16-bit lolitas :)

  • nytom4info
    nytom4info 11 months ago

    That’s a stupid question!!! ;)

  • 678 noobie
    678 noobie Year ago

    As a trainee pilot i was not knowing abt this there was many questions why they call the number nine as ninner why they call ZS-KNS as kilo November sierra and many things thank u very much for letting us know and clearing my doubts 👍👍

  • Captain Boeing
    Captain Boeing Year ago

    Great vid ..

  • Ian Leitch
    Ian Leitch Year ago

    I believe that it is the NATO phonetic alphabet, which was later adopted by ICAO.
    Prior to the NATO version from 1950, there were at least two previous phonetic alphabet versions used by the RAF. The earlier version using words like Ack, Nan etc. and during WW2 Able, Baker, Charlie, Dog etc.
    BT telephone operators, formerly the GPO, in the UK used their own version with domestic words like Sugar.
    Five is Fife.

  • Hannah Apor
    Hannah Apor Year ago

    Captain Joe is Air Berlin will end Its flight this month? Because some news said that the company will shutdown this month.
    I hope you can easily find another job if that happen. By the way your video is like an encyclopedia, thanks for all the info in the vid

  • AngloAm
    AngloAm Year ago

    Same as the NATO alphabet.
    Isn't "fuenf" in German often read out as "fuen-eff" to make it distinct?

  • Sree lekha
    Sree lekha Year ago

    Captain JOE I am a student at grade 9 and I love to become a PILOT in future….....So I would like to know …WHAT ALL QUALITIES DO WE NEED TO BECOME AN AIRLINE PILOT …

  • Tom S.
    Tom S. Year ago

    Also note that the words have similar meanings in English, French, German and Spanish.
    Fun fact: In Atlanta, they will use "Dixie" instead of "delta" for the letter "D" to avoid confusion with Delta Airlines.

    • Allan Richardson
      Allan Richardson Year ago

      Tom S. Wouldn’t it be more consistent to name the airline Dixie, even though some would consider that racially offensive?
      Delta Airlines started in Southern Louisiana, in the delta of the Mississippi River, before growing big enough to move to Atlanta.

  • chaushb
    chaushb Year ago

    Don't like the subtitles

  • HBSurf
    HBSurf Year ago

    I never knew that 3 was pronounced "tree..." lol

  • KIYUN OR KAISAY ???

    Captian Joe, You are great, respect from Pakistan

  • William Sass
    William Sass Year ago

    Captain Joe, I just love your presentation. You make it real interesting and exciting. Just love your video's.

  • Cinnamon Gaming
    Cinnamon Gaming Year ago +7

    2:52 captain jow said tree in german accent

    • Freberg
      Freberg Month ago

      That's how you pronounce it in Aviation

    • Amogh
      Amogh 8 months ago

      Cinnamon Gaming Joe*

  • It's Robby
    It's Robby Year ago

    It's not just pilots that use this police use this also

  • Nathan D'souza
    Nathan D'souza Year ago

    Hey Joe, how are flight paths derived? Ive noticed that flights flying from the middle east or Europe take a curved path upto Greenland and then to the US, but on the return they fly straight... Why is that?

    • Shrey Sharma
      Shrey Sharma 11 months ago

      Nathan D'souza well the earthbound round, so the shortest path, when shown on a flat map wouldn't be a straight line, and thus a flight path on every map will be a curve

  • Ruby Bhatia
    Ruby Bhatia Year ago

    Hello sir.... How you paid for your flying school

  • Elias Pylkkänen
    Elias Pylkkänen Year ago

    Not only pilots use those alfabets. Amateur radio users (commonly known as "HAM"s) use phonetic alfabets.
    But still, this was a great video and best wishes from Finland
    de, OH2EP

  • Aviation TV
    Aviation TV Year ago

    Why are there letters in call signs?

  • Raja Hammad Khalid

    still very difficult

  • Callie Masters
    Callie Masters Year ago

    you're my captain, Joe! ❤

  • Nyck461
    Nyck461 Year ago

    Captain Joe, that is a good explanation about alphabet.
    In aviation language are time (hours) in military format, 13:00 H instead 1:00 H PM?

  • Abhishek sharma
    Abhishek sharma Year ago

    Hii captain...
    I'm really confused about Anti-icing and De-icing....? Can u clear my confusion !!!!!

    • Nii P.
      Nii P. Year ago

      Anti-icing is prevention, de-icing is the removing, when you got icing already.

  • Equinox Gaming
    Equinox Gaming Year ago

    Joe, Do pilots get bullied over ATC or by other pilots? and are you even able to talk to other pilots?

    • mingchoding
      mingchoding Year ago

      UZA Gaming yeah you can communicate with other pilots with the frequency 123.45

  • Dutchy girl
    Dutchy girl Year ago

    I'm honered to give you the 1.300th like! As always great explenation and you're a pleasure to watch, Joe!

  • Mikosch2
    Mikosch2 Year ago

    Yet when referring to types of aircraft, they mostly seem to pronounced on radio as they are anywhere else, it seems. "Give way to the CRJ from the right", "caution wake turbulence from the A340 ahaed." Not charlie-romeo-juliet or alpha-tree-four-zero. Maybe because there's not that many types to confuse after all?

  • mansoor ramizy
    mansoor ramizy Year ago

    funny but very usefull

  • silmarian
    silmarian Year ago

    The phonetic alphabet was also super useful for me when I was working tech support. Well, except Foxtrot - people kept typing in the F and then adding a T. I wound up changing it to Frank, which made me die a little on the inside every time I said it.

    • Allan Richardson
      Allan Richardson Year ago

      silmarian Most programmers pronounce the hex digit for fifteen as FOX. That’s what everyone said during the thirty years I was in that field. Of course, anyone who knows how to count in hex knows there is no digit T.
      (For non-tech folks, hexadecimal, or base-16, numbers are used to group binary digits, or bits, into quads, since 4 bits can count from 0 to 15. The usual numbers are used for 0 to 9, ten is A, eleven is B, etc. and fifteen, binary 1111, is F.)

  • Leonardo S. B.
    Leonardo S. B. Year ago

    as usual a great video with lots of information. thanks!

  • Zamir Zulharyth
    Zamir Zulharyth Year ago

    captain joe what is the difference between tailwind and headwind

    • Nii P.
      Nii P. Year ago

      The direction.

  • Ran Kavik
    Ran Kavik Year ago +43

    I GET IT
    You are not Captain Joe, you are Captain Juliet Oscar Echo

    • Aviões e Jogos
      Aviões e Jogos Month ago

      Charlie Alpha Papa Tango Alpha India November Juliet Oscar Echo

    • Pedro Magalhaes
      Pedro Magalhaes 5 months ago

      Ran Kavik he's not a captain at all...

    • MarEpor
      MarEpor Year ago +1

      idiot, he's called Charlie, Alpha, Papa, Tango, Alpha, India, November, Juliet, Oscar, Echo

    • Matthew Kaai
      Matthew Kaai Year ago

      Adeeb Ighani haha that's funny

    • Adeeb Ighani
      Adeeb Ighani Year ago +1

      Ran Kavik hotel alpha hotel alpha Tango hotel alpha tango sierra Foxtrot uniform November November yankee

  • Crawlerz - Russian Tactical

    Russian THREE is pronounced TRI so exactly like the English Tree

  • thihal123
    thihal123 Year ago

    Isn't aviation pronounced a-vee-a-tion?

  • Surya Dream
    Surya Dream Year ago

    Joe what are the significant marks do pilot have ?

  • Ray Davis
    Ray Davis Year ago

    do you work for air Berlin

  • John Leo
    John Leo Year ago +2

    1000th liker!

  • Gordon McCoy
    Gordon McCoy Year ago

    Another good one... ! Great Vid...! "Say words twice".... (I'm thinking that's more military than civilian...) Gordon

  • Peter Williams
    Peter Williams Year ago

    Thanks again Captain Joe. Always appreciated.

  • RandomnessTv
    RandomnessTv Year ago

    Foxtrot uniform Charlie kilo (F-U-C-K)

  • ANU Nelson
    ANU Nelson Year ago

    would like to know how the flight engine is able to run on high attitude where there is less oxijen level

  • vinayak sharma
    vinayak sharma Year ago

    Captain Joe can U plz explain the role of ILS.

  • kephas57
    kephas57 Year ago

    The sailors use the same alphabet on their radios as well. So who copied from whom? The sailors from the pilots or the pilots from the sailors?

    • Allan Richardson
      Allan Richardson Year ago

      kephas57 Military started it, but different countries and services used different lists. US Army used Able, Baker, Charlie, etc. (in postwar Berlin, the guard station between the American and Russian sectors was the famous Checkpoint Charlie; the other two being US-UK and US-France, one of them being Able and the other being Baker).
      The US Air Force, when it became a separate branch in 1947, changed a few letters to what civilian pilots were already using (just to be different from the Army), and NATO and ICAO later copied the USAF.
      The first two chimps launched into space by the US were named Able and Baker because Explorer was an Army project.

  • Anthony's Trains
    Anthony's Trains Year ago

    What airline do you work for?

  • Cristian Portillo

    Hi captain Joe. My question is I want to became a pilot, how do I start, or what are re requirements to enroll in a flying School.

  • BlueRaiderFlyer
    BlueRaiderFlyer Year ago +42

    I think niner is because nine sounds close to five.

  • Phil Stinton
    Phil Stinton Year ago

    Is of course NATO standard

  • RaG3 Hunter
    RaG3 Hunter Year ago

    EDIT: the military uses the same alphabet for the drill instructor company (company a would be company alpha.)

  • Quiet Please
    Quiet Please Year ago

    Captain Joe, are wind directions given in the direction the wind is traveling, or the direction from which the wind is coming? If the wind direction was given as 270, would that mean it's traveling east or west?

    • kephas57
      kephas57 Year ago

      Yes, it is coming from the west. So if the plane is landing on runway 27 it is heading 270 degrees west and if the wind at that time is 270 degrees the pilot knows, that he has pure headwind.

    • Carl Vogt
      Carl Vogt Year ago

      Quiet Please it means the wind ia coming from the west ;D

  • SAFIKUL ISLAM
    SAFIKUL ISLAM Year ago +22

    your smile is so cute like a baby 😃...good job CAPTAIN JOE..i really enjoyed watching your channel..love it..THUMS UP FOR CAPTAIN JOE..see you on next video

  • BLACK WATER
    BLACK WATER Year ago

    i love german people they are always nice thanks captain joe

  • Harrison Segal-Kelly

    Captain joe why do u have 3 stripes. That's not a captain ranking.

    • Harrison Segal-Kelly
      Harrison Segal-Kelly Year ago

      Well I mean he calls himself a captain... 3 stripes is a FO not a captain

    • Dane Roje
      Dane Roje Year ago

      Harrison Segal-Kelly He is a co-pilot

  • Daniell Bondad
    Daniell Bondad Year ago

    In an investigation documentary,I already learned Bravo,Oscar,Mike,Bravo.
    Other examples:Runway niner.
    Cool code that pilots have.

    • Keg
      Keg Year ago

      alfa
      bravo
      charlie
      delta
      echo
      foxtrot
      golf
      hotel
      india
      juliet
      kilo
      lima
      mike
      november
      oscar
      papa
      quebec
      romeo
      sierra
      tango
      uniform
      victor
      whiskey
      x-ray
      yankee
      zulu

  • David Poon King
    David Poon King Year ago

    From Alpha to Zulu

  • Dogo
    Dogo 2 years ago

    Hey Joe,
    ich hab nun alle Videos durchgeschaut und bin begeistert! Wirklich tolle Arbeit!
    Was ich mich immer frage ist, ob es nur für mich so schwer ist oder ob jeder am Anfang noch etwas hapert mit dem Funkverkehr. Ich kann auf jedenfall problemlos Englisch auch wenn es sicher nicht das beste ist. Trotzdem verstehe ich nicht immer 100% alles vom Funk. (z. B. in deinen Videos).

  • PalmaKotStube :D
    PalmaKotStube :D 2 years ago

    Greeting from EDRW

  • Sam Haddad
    Sam Haddad 2 years ago +53

    captain joe, how do you communicate with ground ATC while in flight? Airbus or Boeing, is there a red button you push on the yoke or joystick to talk to ATC? please unlock this mystery for me.

    • zafar iqbal
      zafar iqbal 17 days ago

      Untill Captain joe have no time for reply of your question

    • The Aviator KDLC
      The Aviator KDLC 4 months ago

      911gp and deactivating the opposite side stick by holding the button for 40 seconds.

    • M.J. Leger
      M.J. Leger 5 months ago

      YES, Sam, there is usually a button on the yoke!! And usually one on the joystick; either one can usually be programmed.

    • Pedro Magalhaes
      Pedro Magalhaes 8 months ago

      Sam Haddad its NOT A JOYSTICK! its a sidestick!

    • Evan Dickson
      Evan Dickson 8 months ago

      nah it's kamakhazi mode

  • Dennis Ahola
    Dennis Ahola 2 years ago +6

    What does all the different Transponder modes do in the A320s. like standby, xpndr, ta/ra etc. if there is more explain them :)

    • mingchoding
      mingchoding Year ago

      Dennis Ahola mode A transponder just gives the aircraft ident, Mode C gives both ident and altitude of the aircraft, and TCAS uses mode C to generate both RA and TA, Mode S is like the even smarter version of the previous modes. The standby button just puts the transponder in standby mode, I believe you key in your squawk code in standby mode.

  • Ariel Ponting
    Ariel Ponting 2 years ago +10

    Mr. Giggles

  • Mizzy Roro
    Mizzy Roro 2 years ago

    Here is a question. With all the glass cockpits today do you still need to know morse code?

  • ForEverDubaiLover
    ForEverDubaiLover 2 years ago

    HAM radio also use it.. it's NATO

  • DasEtwas
    DasEtwas 2 years ago

    Du hast Triple-six gesagt :o

  • charlie dixon
    charlie dixon 2 years ago +15

    who do you fly for?

  • sneaks01
    sneaks01 2 years ago

    Awesome channel!!! Keep up the great work!!

  • No idea What to put.
    No idea What to put. 2 years ago +4

    I'm British but where I come from we say three as in tree anyway

  • ltdakheel
    ltdakheel 2 years ago

    same goes for military

  • mustapha DAOUDI
    mustapha DAOUDI 2 years ago +5

    The spelling alphet was developped long time ago for maritime communications, not for aviation use. After , it was adopted by the ICAO. For numbers, there's a standard "Alphabet" Nadazero,Unaone,Bissotwo,Terrathree,Kartefour,Pantafive,Soxisix,Setteseven,Oktoeight,Novenine, but number's are usually spelled in a normal way, one , two three etc ... By the way, as a merchant marine captain, i'm glad to have found your channel, it's very intressting , a window on aviation industry .

    • searchfortech
      searchfortech 5 months ago

      what you wanted to say by this?

    • M.J. Leger
      M.J. Leger 5 months ago

      "mustpha" -- We see you can cut and paste -- now try spelling "alphet" as alphabet, or even alfabet in some languages, but never alphet! (English has been the international alphabet since about 1951, so that line of names you listed are long obsolete!)

    • searchfortech
      searchfortech 5 months ago

      M.J. Leger you are wrong, we still use this alphabet in merchant fleet,except the numbers. And we do use the flags,but only for small amount of situations. Because there are still regulations demanding that.

    • searchfortech
      searchfortech 5 months ago

      mustapha DAOUDI nice to see the maritime colleague here as well). Im a 2mate, and im just lost here for few days on this channel! Very interesting to understand other big industry comparing to ours

    • M.J. Leger
      M.J. Leger 8 months ago

      Those names: "nada, una, bisso, terra, karte," etc. are long ago obsolete! Since at least 1951, since English is the international language. Amateur radio operators MAY still use those old words in some old countries, but no one else does. I remember my younger brother learned those words for his ham radio license, but they never used them on radio. Not even merchant marines use those old words anymore! No one even uses flags with those original names anymore, they all use comms.

  • miguel cuadros
    miguel cuadros 2 years ago

    +Captain Joe hey, I was wondering what does "MAYDAY" and "PAN PAN" stands for, cheers

    • Vorpal Sword
      Vorpal Sword Year ago

      Well as I live and learn, that takes me back to 2nd form many, many moons ago when I impressed our French teacher Brother Shoebridge by remembering 'panne' for breakdown rather than 'accident'!

    • mustapha DAOUDI
      mustapha DAOUDI 2 years ago

      Nope , merchant navy captain.

    • Fouziah Hawari
      Fouziah Hawari 2 years ago +1

      are u pilot too?

    • mustapha DAOUDI
      mustapha DAOUDI 2 years ago

      MAYDAY is from the french "M'aider", help me , PAN PAN, is also from french "PANNE" , failure

    • Ifly 777
      Ifly 777 2 years ago

      But isn't is kinda obvious? But i also want him to make a video about it.

  • G POWER DRAGON
    G POWER DRAGON 2 years ago

    I hope more airliners considered biofuels if the oil runs out the whole country is to a screeching halt a massive black out not many people realize how severe the consequences are for the country the oil biggest use for gasoline and jet A fuel

  • G POWER DRAGON
    G POWER DRAGON 2 years ago

    like Mikey unicorn November

  • Nation Builders Real Estate Company

    Hi Captain Joe, what is meant by the term "Rotate" when taking off and why does the pilot tell the computer to "Continue" when the plane reaches "minimum"? Can't it just continue on its own till touchdown? Also what is meant by the term "Retard" upon touchdown?

    • Michael HTT
      Michael HTT 2 years ago +1

      retard means to put the engines down to flight idle, to initiate a flare, probably around 30ft off the ground

    • Bogdan
      Bogdan 2 years ago +5

      They don't say it to the computer, they say it so the other pilot knows that the landing is being continued and not aborted

    • pedro tanure
      pedro tanure 2 years ago +2

      V1: Now it is not safe to stip the takwoff even if you lose a engine.
      Rotate: takeoff! Pull the nose up because you have enough speed to lift with all engines
      V2: You have enough speed to climb with just 1 engine.
      Minimums:Minimum altitude to decide if u are going to land or to go around
      Retard: You are almost on the ground and you have to lift up your nose to land.

  • fredslow
    fredslow 2 years ago

    Very helpful and interesting! I always assumed that Germans say TREE because they are too lazy to pronounce "th"correctly (fellow German, here...). In fact, I only noticed German pilots saying "Tree", as other nations usually stick to "three".

  • gowshath s
    gowshath s 2 years ago

    Cpt.Joe tats a great video...Can u please explain what is the procedure pilots follow to load flight plan and also follow it.Its the pilots own wish to use his own navigation using STARS nd SIDS or its completely guided by ATC.And whats these VFR and IFR ,DO u mostly follow IFR.????Its all about the flight plan and Navigation..Please answer my doubt...

  • CrisURace
    CrisURace 2 years ago

    Lovely channel! Keep it up!