Incredibles 2 - Movie Review


Comments • 2 879

  • Hayden Barnes
    Hayden Barnes 8 hours ago

    I agreed with the villain. Tell me I’m not the only one

  • Sheriff Woody
    Sheriff Woody 21 hour ago

    Oh come on Buy it on Blu-ray at least.

  • awsome cop show fan
    awsome cop show fan 4 days ago

    You forgot to mention screenslaver

  • Ronan Buddy
    Ronan Buddy 4 days ago

    Incredibles 2 is the best movie why are all those bozos on TVclip thinking that it's bad when it's good it's like saying that Coco is bad when it's good

  • Landkrabben
    Landkrabben 5 days ago

    is it weird that i never liked the first One just a little bit

  • Epic Movie Compilations

    Yeah cool, introduce Syndrome in the second film . . . What the fuck are you talking about?

  • The Great Geek
    The Great Geek 10 days ago

    In the movie the villain talks about how all people do is watch t.v instated of really doing things. There's your philosophy changing moment.

    VOLD GAMER 11 days ago

    been waiting 14 YEARS FOR THIS FILM!!!!!!!!

  • OneofAKind 13
    OneofAKind 13 11 days ago

    Bro the Hispanic chick from the El Dorado cartoon movie and ElastaGirl are the thickest female cartoon characters ever. Well done.

  • Guilshad Joseph
    Guilshad Joseph 12 days ago

    I'll go for archers Lana kane

  • Temp John
    Temp John 13 days ago

    Agree with the criticisms

  • Uthman Al-Wandawi
    Uthman Al-Wandawi 14 days ago

    I feel like hypnosis is such a cliche bad guy power that isn't at all interesting and always leads to the same outcome

  • Jay_baby _lacy
    Jay_baby _lacy 15 days ago


  • ItzHeaty
    ItzHeaty 15 days ago

    I learned a message when screenslaver was talking about how relying on stuff made us week

  • Michael Hart
    Michael Hart 15 days ago

    Elastigirl is how you do strong feminine female characters.

  • Jordan Gower
    Jordan Gower 17 days ago

    I really liked the look of Screenslaver’s costume, I thought she was an interesting villain because of her backstory. If you recall one of the heroes her dad tried to call was Gazer Beam, who didn’t answer because he was killed by one of Snydrome’s Omnidroids. To me that establishes the legacy of Syndrome in the Incredivese and gives the movie an even stronger tie to the first one. Also the name Screenslaver I love it they really captured feel of campy 60s villain names.

  • Demitra Jolie
    Demitra Jolie 18 days ago

    I felt the villain in the second one was more predictable than the first one.

  • rocknroller 418
    rocknroller 418 20 days ago +2

    Syndrome > Evelyn

  • Koby Pourciaux
    Koby Pourciaux 20 days ago +1

    For me, it’s awesometacular

  • spartandud3
    spartandud3 20 days ago

    While I agree Syndrome was much better than Screen Slaver I have to disagree with you on the quality of the film as a whole. We both agree it's good but I honestly think this was even better than the first (I loved the first). And that the stay at home dad stuff was really well done.

    • MaybeNextTime
      MaybeNextTime 4 days ago

      spartandud3 it lacked creativity. They had fronzone and Mr incredible stop a giant object from crashing two different times in the same movie. Also nobody cared about the stay at home story

    CODEFORTYTWO 21 day ago

    Wait, Edna makes Jack-Jack a suite and accompanying tablet computer to track his power usage and gives preemptive warning and ways to defuse each situation. When he goes to different dimension Edna built an interdimensional tracker to track him through the void. HOW DO WE HAVE INTERDIMENSIONAL TECHNOLOGY THAT ADVANCED?! Did she build it overnight? Did she develop it earlier? How long was she working on it? How long ago did she succeed? Why hasn't she sold it to NASA to improve our telescope scanning systems? Particle physics breakthroughs would skyrocket too

  • Phil Ingrouille
    Phil Ingrouille 23 days ago

    After a week I'm still really annoyed by the villain they chose. Spoilers: it's another villain with a vendetta for superheroes, that's it. I mean, this is what we got after 14-15 years of waiting; Syndrome 2.0?

  • Beverly Mendez
    Beverly Mendez 24 days ago

    It was Totally Wicked,but I do agree the Villian was not as good as Syndrome!!!😍😍Loved your review on the movie.👍🏻👍🏻👍🏻

  • saikhant kyawzin
    saikhant kyawzin 25 days ago


  • Prussii
    Prussii 25 days ago


  • GoblinKing
    GoblinKing 26 days ago

    Not even close to being as good as the first one. The villain sucked. The pacing was all over the place.

  • Cupcake Girl
    Cupcake Girl 26 days ago

    I brought my kids to see this and I was eager to see it bc my oldest son was young for the 1st and it was awesome, this movie was boring and thrown together, it dropped the ball after 14yrs, they really ganked adults and a new generation of kids.... we prob will never watch the 2nd Incredibles again

  • BIGCasualGamer
    BIGCasualGamer 27 days ago

    no its not as good as the 1st i think its better but only just

  • Phoenix
    Phoenix 27 days ago

    I'm not sure if its the same in the u.s. but in the UK we got this weird short film before the start of the movie about a woman who creates a sentient dumpling who she rises but turns out to be her real son, there's not even any warning come the credits of the short film everyone in the theatre is wondering what the fuck we've just watched

  • Nicholas Goodwin
    Nicholas Goodwin 28 days ago

    If your favorite character is dash like me you will have been let down with the lack in of his superpower. They needed a X-men/Mission Impossible Scene where dash helps to break into this high security prison in the middle section of the movie and remove out a couple of those sappy family scenes to add more evil aspect to the villain. Also the villain like in the first movie needed a sidekick like bane.

  • Daniel Duffy
    Daniel Duffy 29 days ago

    Imo a better vilian for this movie would have been the dad of the real villain that supposedly died and watched his wife die and as a result hates supers. He could have been all disfigured due to a gunshot which is why he needed the mask. Pretty much everything could have been the same with the daughter working along side him reluctantly (kind of like mirage at the end of the first one). At some point he acidently puts her in danger and she could be saved by elastagirl (or another member of the family) which causes him to change his mind on supers (could be a flash back of his dead wife) and then he hates himself for what he's done which results in him sacrificing himself to stop his plan from harming others

  • Thanos The Mad Titan
    Thanos The Mad Titan 29 days ago

    I was really REALLY disappointed in this film
    Boring and predictable story
    The characters that Elastigirl meet look way too much like characters from Fortnite
    Bad villian
    Onluy good parts were the family scenes with Bob and the kids at the luxury home
    Jack Jack was dope
    Edna was dope
    Frozone was dope

    But the movie was really disappointing

  • MeXDi
    MeXDi 29 days ago

    I am going to see this movie 3August when it comes out in my country. (Prbly cause they have to dub it)

  • Mason Ginn
    Mason Ginn 29 days ago +1

    I think the villain had a great point of how heroes make people weak when all you do is put your faith in them instead of choosing to protect yourself

  • Cobbster PT
    Cobbster PT Month ago

    EDIT (Before Reading): WHAT?? There's no Incredibles 1 review on your channel, Jeremy? Seriously? I need to watch that!
    I did love the speech the villain gave at the beginning, about how we like superheroes because we seek satisfaction on them and I think it's a really great message that could have had a greater impact if they repeated it and made it matter more, like they did with Syndrome

  • MT Thomson
    MT Thomson Month ago

    The message in incredibles 2 was: we will all become slaves to our screens. And thats what the screenslaver wanted to stop from happening so she planned to have the supers shine in a bad light. Going with the pixar theory, that makes sense, as all of humanity in Wall-e relies on screens so much😊

  • Zachary Greenberg
    Zachary Greenberg Month ago

    Plot was horrific, why did Eveyln need to raise up the superheroes just to bring them back down? Superheroes were already banned for 15 years so why Eveyln need to make them look like the good guys just to get everyone to hate them again? The movie takes place right after the Incredibles so why would she even think of this plan since no one liked the superheroes. Had she just not helped out her brother or tried to sabotage his brother's plan, there. never would have been redemption.

  • Kristian Rodriguez
    Kristian Rodriguez Month ago +2

    Incredibles 3 idea : bomb voyage and the underminer team up

  • Matthew Roberts
    Matthew Roberts Month ago

    Is it possible that the reason for why Winston Deavors' father didn't get an answer from Gazerbeam when trying to call him isn't just because supers went into hiding, but because Syndrome had already gotten to him? After all, Frozone even said that Gazerbeam - like Mr. Incredible - struggled with normal life and even played a part in Syndrome's "missions" before trying to foil his plans. Therefore, surely he would have jumped at the opportunity to save someone he knew so well - whether supers were illegal or not.

  • Tv References
    Tv References Month ago

    Wish we got to see more of the new superheroes especially void

  • Hamzah Patel
    Hamzah Patel Month ago +1

    Yes, the villain was extremely predictable and had a dumb motive but Jackjack made up for all that

  • Uzayr Kader
    Uzayr Kader Month ago

    I would say Screenslaver had a very real and true motivation and point tbh. Also. Underminer and Bomb Voyage are still on the loose probably 😂

  • RyaanS Music
    RyaanS Music Month ago +1

    Saw this last night and really enjoyed it! Only wish the villain was a little better and they used the underminer. Not as good as the first but was still awesome

  • Dare Fajinmi
    Dare Fajinmi Month ago

    An interesting point which was raised in this film by Screenslaver was the idea that society is deeply attached to consuming experiences through screens (such as reality TV shows) as opposed to actually engaging in them.

  • Obosi
    Obosi Month ago

    I loved it. Really did.

  • Danny Blame
    Danny Blame Month ago

    The bad guy said people r weak do to over depending on supers

  • Canem Cave
    Canem Cave Month ago

    this movie was a feminist indoctrination platform, unfortunately a real disappointment.

  • Stewert lincoln
    Stewert lincoln Month ago

    Incredibles 2 !! Not enjoyed as much as i waited for this part for so long!!
    Btw !! I will give this movie a B

  • Javier Condit
    Javier Condit Month ago +1

    Absolutely loved this movie!!! Was expecting the worst going in for some reason but I thought it was bloody brilliant

  • political correctness must die

    What happened to women just being silent, cooking a good meal and serving her man? There were way less divorces back then.
    Are women happy now? There are more divorced women and lonely career women now more than ever.
    Many of these career women are committing suicide.

  • Kayson Raww
    Kayson Raww Month ago

    Atleast Blu-ray come on man

  • Slayer Fortress
    Slayer Fortress Month ago +2

    I'm going to say first is defiantly better however I'm not saying this movie is bad i loved this movie so much. One of the messages i think it could state to an adult is that being a superhero isn't just saving the world, its looking out for each other. And we see this through Mr Incredible's parenting as he tries to be there for each family member and no matter how much he messes up or how much odds are against him he keeps going. As well as this i agree with your view on the villain, although good, i also saw the twist from a while back and the first villain was so much better. However i think it is a great follow up and was not a disappointment and for me a defiantly worth buying and watching on Blu-ray. Glad you enjoyed it Jeremy and now we have to wait another 14 years for the third. (saw the first one when i was one!)

  • Rafiki Johansen
    Rafiki Johansen Month ago

    I honestly felt upset walking out the cinema. Has absolutely nothing on the first one + the plot was bad


    Spoiler review

  • strategic gamer
    strategic gamer Month ago +1

    In my opinion this movie isn’t that good it’s about a 6 out of 10 the first movie was so much better

    • strategic gamer
      strategic gamer Month ago +1

      Ryder Barton nah the first one is mint and this one isn’t that good it’s easy to point out what’s different

    • Ryder Barton
      Ryder Barton Month ago

      strategic gamer you been watch movies too much.

    • strategic gamer
      strategic gamer Month ago +1

      Like dash and mr incredibles powers weren’t shown enough and I also feel like mr incredibles was a lot stronger in the first movie

  • Elisheva Chaimov
    Elisheva Chaimov Month ago


  • Kyle Campbell
    Kyle Campbell Month ago +1

    Brad Bird is a good director
    But lately, he hasn't been much of a good writer

  • Panda248
    Panda248 Month ago

    The second movie took the first and did nothing with it. They didn’t even dedicate it to the underminer!!!!! From the cliffhanger in the first movie I assumed that he was going to be the main villain but no they had to introduce the screenslaver and the underminer only had like a 20 minutes of fame until hopefully he will arrive in incredibles 3(if it even comes out)

  • endarasman .architect

    Stretchy power isn't stupid, look at Monkey D Luffy, he is incredible.

  • Juvencio Rosales
    Juvencio Rosales Month ago

    I felt like this movie was a bit pushy on the SJW agenda, otherwise pretty good, the first its obviously better imo

  • The Stark Knight Returns

    I loved the first movie, but didn't like this one.
    - The pacing was uneven;
    - the villain was a simple afterthought, with no twist or depth;
    - it deploys some smart ideas (the cause of death of the Deavours' father; the Screenslaver monologue) but goes nowhere with them. They do not contribute to closing the "storybook"
    - it aims at a "reverse Incredibles 1" with the stay-at-home dad and the venturous wife, but the formula is already spent and with nowhere to go
    - It didn't have a proper 3rd act. The "controlled" new heroes are lame and borderline farsical.
    - Dash barely did anything to help the solution presented at the end.
    - IT had some pretty DUMB sequences: Jack-jack vs a racoon?? The random Incredobile segment?? The looooong and booring Edna mode scene that has no relevance to the plot?
    - There was no "Incredibles" official team action. They always gathered by mere chance, just like in the first movie. No "Ops Team" dynamic.
    - There was no REAL superhero substance throughout the entire film. No "new blood" vs "old blood" heroes. No "oldschool morals" vs "modern lack thereof", NO BASIC REASON for us seeing NEW superheroes coming to the spotlight.
    I would have loved if they did something like: "a media mogul wanting to profit on the recent Superhero craze, applies cheap parlor tricks onto normal guys (weaklings and lowlifes) dressed as Supers, with fake abilities, but one of the Supers gets uber exposed to the Super-phenomena, slows into madness, turns on the mogul and actually believes he is special" - a reflection on what makes someone special, or "Super".

  • Heth Rham
    Heth Rham Month ago



    You don’t think the plot, villain twist/reveal and character situations were almost identical and completely rehashed from the first film?

  • Classified Chappy
    Classified Chappy Month ago

    Totally enjoyed the movie overall. Worth the wait as it was quite a nostalgic feeling seeing the characters again with an intriguing plot.
    Very satisfied with The Incredibles 2 and I think the ending is very good.

  • Certified Fresh
    Certified Fresh Month ago

    Such a wasted opportunity I can't believe I waited 14 years to see an Elastigirl movie. It should have been the whole family fighting together like they had on the fucking poster smh

  • The Ren
    The Ren Month ago

    I enjoyed it, and I agree, the villian let me down. It was what I was actually looking towards.
    Besides that, the movie felt like one big feminism movement to appeal to this bitchy modern society. In this day, sure enough if that lead role was given to Mr. Incredible, there would have been riots in every corner. Smh

  • Stephen Trail
    Stephen Trail Month ago

    Wasn't as classic as the first movie, but still great.

  • Pampos Pampou
    Pampos Pampou Month ago

    First of all this movie was really good . I didn't went to watch it to see again the Incredibles movie I first saw 14 years ago . This first movie was really good too but we can't just put on a formula to these movies like Marvel does it they went the route I wanted them to and they made something different .
    We get to see Elastic girl on action a lot this time and she is great
    The baby has potential for a future movie to turn to a good character
    The older siblings are fine , Dash was put on the side a bit though
    Mr Incredible faces single parenthood
    The feeling is more or less realistic

    As for the villains of the two movies , here's their differences :
    Syndrome was a child inventor that wanted to become a superhero ignoring people lives but he gets rejected , then he becomes a maniac who hates superheroes and wants to be worshiped and be powerful makes sense
    Evelyn though is not the persona she made like the kid in the first movie that became Syndrome , Evelyn just created a character called Screenslaver that doesn't exist so that she would accomplish her goal to make humanity move in front of the super heroes . Something entirely different . Why would she do that ? Because she was watching her father and her brother be relying to much on super heroes but when they needed them most they were nowhere to be found so now she isn't just doing it only because of what happened to her father but to make her brother realize that they do not need super heroes . Her motivations are logical like Syndromes were .
    She is a three dimensional super villain on her own right .

  • Geoffrey Raktoe
    Geoffrey Raktoe Month ago

    Incredibles wasn’t even intended to have a sequel..not every movie should be viewed as to be in some sort of franchise even though it’s a sequel..and the amount of time that passed between the two🤷🏽‍♂️my take on this

  • sikisikiamimis
    sikisikiamimis Month ago

    That was the first time i've ever felt sleepy watching an animated movie on big screen.
    The solid comedy had me awake, everything else was terrible.
    Which is ironic because the first movie was so great because of how dark and real it was, this one was a joke, in both senses.

  • Exodarion
    Exodarion Month ago +2

    Standards have gone down so far.... Our ancestors would spank us all with wooden rulers. Feminism is in all our movies now

  • Kyreese Alford
    Kyreese Alford Month ago +2

    The Incredibles 2 was Awesometacular!!! 10/10👍😇😆😎🤑😍💞🎊🎉🎆

  • Carly Craig
    Carly Craig Month ago

    the thing i took away from screenslaver was that instead of experience life we watch it

  • Justin Lloyd
    Justin Lloyd Month ago +1

    When In read these comments i hear the same thing...."the villain was predictable" or "screen slaver is weak". Whole is was able to predict the movies villan easily, Ive been able to do it with pixar movies all the time, Toy story 2, Toy story 3, CoCo, Monsters University. Im sure all of you have too so whats the issue. Evelyn is weaker than the heroes but she doesnt want to have a first fight with them, she wants to bend them to her will and ultimately turn the world against them. I understood every reasoning behind her actions too. The problem isnt her setup, or how string she is, or that she's predictable. The problem is her personality. She is as eccentric as symdrome her and she also isnt as sinister. She seems like its not that important to her when shes talking to hellen Helen about her plan which takes alot away from her role.

    • Justin Lloyd
      Justin Lloyd Month ago +1

      Its not better than the first for me because when the incredibles came out it was so original there was and is no super hero movie like it. The way they took this idea about comic book heroes and villains and put them in real life scenarios was just ingenious. They even felt my pain in terms of the whole villains monologing thing and i loved that. It changed the game in terms the films scores. Its so original yet recognizable which a lot of films scores have yet to find out how to do. Dont even get me started on syndrome. What a badass fucking villain. when you put all of that together it became this cultural phenomenon all across America and it changed the game in terms of super heroes movies. So to try and make a sequel to top it wouldn't have been a piece a cake especially with the times changing and the incredibles 2 didn't exactly top it but this movie it still Excellent but its just the sequel to a superior movie. In terms of pixar films i have it at six.

  • JuneofJuly
    JuneofJuly Month ago

    The movie was pretty forgettable to me. Honestly, I felt the dialogues between characters (especially the "philosophical" conversations elastigirl and the female villain had) were too dry and lengthy. Couldn't grasp what audience this movie was trying to capture. Some of the dialogues were too complex and lengthy for little kids to understand, but at the same time it didn't really contain humor that adults could appreciate either.
    A family of three (mom, dad, and a toddler) that sat next to me left halfway through the movie. Yes, it was that dry and boring.

  • King Savage97
    King Savage97 Month ago

    What?!? ScreenSlaver didn't seem cliche at all to me

  • Ronald McDonald
    Ronald McDonald Month ago

    Ok fair enough review. Conclusion: -Saw first one. -Feminist BS in my face everyday. ergo -Dont need to see II.

  • Brozie
    Brozie Month ago


    I feel like the villain’s motivation in the second film was like a reverse of the first one. Instead of everyone being able to be a superhero, there should be no superhero’s at all. Kind of a cool way to show two different philosophies in each of the films, making them unique in their own way.

  • Waldemar Rodriguez
    Waldemar Rodriguez Month ago

    Baby was too forced imo

  • Su4#0ne
    Su4#0ne Month ago

    I think the word your looking for is THICC

  • David Smith
    David Smith Month ago

    great movie

  • andile majozi
    andile majozi Month ago +1

    elasogirl thiccc af smash that

  • Smackerlacker
    Smackerlacker Month ago

    E3 is this big annual event where people are really busy for... some reason, and everyone gets really excited about... something? Stuff happens, right?

  • Emily Sanderson
    Emily Sanderson Month ago

    Syndrome was definitely a much better villain than the one in Incredibles 2. Especially since he didn’t give everyone in the audience A LITERAL SEIZURE

  • Joseph Johnson
    Joseph Johnson Month ago

    I agree with you 100% on the line from Dash about being special lol

  • diandra rizvi
    diandra rizvi Month ago

    First of all.. I like this movie so much, one of my favorite superhero movie of all time (and i've watched like, all of them...). Great action sequences, Superb animation, and the characters were amazing. But what this movie lacks, especially from pixar perspective, is obviously the 'touching moments that makes u feel u want to cry'. For example, in the first incredible we have the moment when bob thought that he lost his family when the plane crash, and later he stated that he's not strong enough... To lose her again. Now that's touching :')

  • Julia Fernades
    Julia Fernades Month ago +2

    I Just think that the incredibles 2 show many things like how the television can make people think in one way or other way, cause the villain show this the whole movie, and it's cool because show the woman power and teach you that stay in home taking care of your children it's not a easy job. And many other things that if you watch with care you will see. Just my opinion.

  • Paige Washington
    Paige Washington Month ago +1

    You guys are unworthy. Considering how long it takes to Make, no they rushed to finalize a story. Whining about how long you had to wait the story held up. Look at the attention to detail colors lighting. These artists put in some work. I appreciate it. And admit it you couldn't predict most of that movie as predictable as y'all claiming.

    • Classified Chappy
      Classified Chappy Month ago +1

      Paige Washington I just read from another video that can be acceptable and can see why some people only want a third installment is because the miner is still alive. Kind of think it is acceptable since I do remember he was alive that Bob did not capture him in time. If the director could possibly made similar on The Incredibles sequel game they made on 2005, then I think it may be cool.
      Other than that, exactly like we both said everything the staff just built into of making this movie took a lot of work to deliever. Things can change depending on the actor's perspectives as I would rather keep the ending as it is, and have the miner at the ending scene have sort of clue to see the 2nd game for it.

    • Paige Washington
      Paige Washington Month ago +1

      Classified Chappy right! If you want a perfect story, a year in the least maybe. Considering the pressure they were under to Produce (because the machine) It was exciting and perfect enough for me and the kids. All the dark good. Beautiful

    • Classified Chappy
      Classified Chappy Month ago +1

      Paige Washington Especially at the very first part the cast mentioned how long it took to prep everything to make sure this movie does great which based on the comments I still don't get why most people won't take that a consideration. Long years after the first Incredibles was released and it was worth it. Great movie altogether.

  • Marlo Scouting
    Marlo Scouting Month ago +1

    The villain was great. LISTEN to the screen slaver speeches.

  • Yautja
    Yautja Month ago

    Holy crap we both have the same favorite characters Dash and Frozone

  • Isaac Brand
    Isaac Brand Month ago +3

    It wasn't that good. It kinda sucks when studios who have all the talent and money in the world only make half decent movies. The villain had a week ass motivation and half the movie was boring af when Mr. Incredible was just chillin at home. Jack Jack is basically a minion at this point (really only there to look cute, and act really annoying). The only thing I can really say I enjoyed about it was the action and animation which was amazing. That being said... it's better than most of the shit that's being pumped out by animation studios these days. Remember when animated movies used to be creative and not just a string of sequels to capitalize on nostalgia?

  • JediKeyblade
    JediKeyblade Month ago

    Nearly most of the film seemed good, but half of it was rushed and had some missing pieces from the first film. I mean seriously this film takes place the same time as the first film and yet the crew didn't seem to rewatch the first film before going into production with the second film so there are about 2 plot holes to the film.

  • bigben028cards1
    bigben028cards1 Month ago

    My only gripe is how stupid it is the kids didn't rip the Hypno goggles off of the other supers that they knocked out. They could have freed Void at least twice on the boat. But I guess they're just kids with superpowers.

  • Shanny Salcedo
    Shanny Salcedo Month ago

    Spoiler Alert...

    Evelyn Deavor is ____________.

  • Courtney
    Courtney Month ago

    I thought the movie was long and boring. Jack jack saved the day lol

  • Tristan Garcia
    Tristan Garcia Month ago

    I appreciate the Jersey Girl reference

  • StarCloud Media
    StarCloud Media Month ago +1

    Elastigirl was so THICC

  • Cornflack
    Cornflack Month ago +2

    Jack Jack in this movie was like the minions in Despicable Me BEFORE THEY GOT ANNOYING

  • Huey Freeman
    Huey Freeman Month ago

    If their going to make a Third Incredibles. They better put Frozones Wife.

  • Jaws
    Jaws Month ago

    Watch the Wisecrack video on Incredibles 2 to see what you missed.