When We Met Other Human Species

  • Published on Jul 9, 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.
    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/
    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: tvclip.biz/user/pbsdigitalstudios
    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science & TechnologyScience & Technology

Comments • 4 754

  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons  14 days ago +217

    Some commenters have pointed out that calling Neanderthals and Denisovans “other hominin species” in this episode breaks the rules of the biological species concept (BSC), which says if two things can interbreed, then they’re the same species. Some paleoanthropologists would agree. They consider both Neanderthals and Denisovans to be subspecies of Homo sapiens, rather than separate species. Other experts would say that Neanderthals have a set of features that make them clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, putting them outside the range of variation we include in our species. And we hardly know the Denisovans - like we said in the video, they don’t even have a scientific name yet.

    The incredible thing about this is that we can even think about applying the BSC to fossils at all. The BSC is a species concept based on living organisms, and it’s only been within the last two decades or so that we’ve had the ancient DNA and the technology to test hypotheses about interbreeding in extinct groups. And it’s not the only way to define a species, either, so it will likely be a while (if ever) before anthropologists decide whether we’re a different species, subspecies, or population from the Neanderthals and Denisovans.

    (Darcy Shapiro, PhD, script editor)

    • MyName Jeff
      MyName Jeff 2 days ago

      @EZboyrocks It's not meaningless. The concept of species is just very complex which makes it difficult to strictly define. Such is the nature of evolution and genetic drift, they don't just happen overnight.

    • Edward Edeh
      Edward Edeh 4 days ago

      Shimrra I know I was just saying you don’t have to point out anything I know she won’t notice I’m not a idiot

    • Olav
      Olav 5 days ago +4

      A lion and a tiger can produce a liger. The male ligers are always sterile, but the females are certainly not. They can chose to breed with a male of either species, and can produce healthy offspring. The big cats can interbreed and yet it certainly seems natural to distinguish lions from tigers, and to agree that they are not of the same species. A "species" is nothing more than a definition that we have invented to help us categorise animals, and it is useful. If the definition is wrong in some cases, clearly disagreeing with what we consider a species, we should modify or amend the definition, not use it where it obviously fails to describe our collective intuitive notion of a "species".
      Just my opinion though. Sorry for my English, I also don't really know much about any of this stuff to be honest.

    • Shimrra
      Shimrra 5 days ago +1

      @Edward Edeh If she didn't add that, then you would have people saying that she has no idea what she is talking about. She clearly addressed the competing ideas out there and they chose one path that is just as scientifically valid as the other at this point.

    • Edward Edeh
      Edward Edeh 5 days ago

      PBS Eons cool nice that you have a PHD

  • a_silent_songbird
    a_silent_songbird 3 hours ago

    04:55 oh really? so they were kinky little cavemen... Hahaha

  • Spanish HoneyBadger
    Spanish HoneyBadger 4 hours ago

    Why the low percentage? Were we capable of snatching just a few Neanderthal teens every decade ?

  • Destry Welch
    Destry Welch 5 hours ago

    The narrator is absolutely adorable.

  • TurboDropTop
    TurboDropTop 5 hours ago

    If you want your mind blown, look up the jewelry the denisovans made. There is a bracelet with a hole for a strap drilled into it from 70,000 years ago.

  • A Stick
    A Stick 7 hours ago

    heh...twig 0:06

  • Old Panama City Beach
    Old Panama City Beach 7 hours ago

    Neanderthal was assimilated out of existence.

  • Rick Robitaille
    Rick Robitaille 10 hours ago

    Modern genetics is answering alot of speculative theories laid down by scientists
    who made a career arguing for,they must remain open minded and feel enlightened to be proved wrong,this is such a esoteric science,modern genetics will shed light on human origins

  • The Truth Boys !!
    The Truth Boys !! 12 hours ago

    Sima translates to summit not pit

  • Brandon BillTheCat
    Brandon BillTheCat 18 hours ago +1

    Come on, it's not that hard. The reason we are here and they are not is because we are just one mean SOB's and they were just a bunch of nice guys.. And so, we beat the living daylights out of them and when they were gone we were sad, said oh well, and settled on beating the living daylights out of each other instead. And all was well.

  • Brandon BillTheCat
    Brandon BillTheCat 18 hours ago

    Come on, it's not that hard. The reason we are here and they are not is because we are just one mean SOB's and they were just a bunch of nice guys.. And so, we beat the living daylights out of them and when they were gone we were sad, said oh well, and settled on beating the living daylights out of each other instead. And all was well.

  • Kratos Zues
    Kratos Zues 19 hours ago

    im sure we killed all of the other hominids. Human nature is filth.

    BUFF IT 19 hours ago

    all I hear is you contradicting your self stupid dum dum you do not even realize what your saying stupid liberials cant even comprehend what they r saying they just run there mouth thinking the whole world is going to believe the stupid stuff that comes out of there stupid face

  • Top This!
    Top This! Day ago

    The Neanderthal they keep showing looks like boskoe 100. Lol

  • robert P
    robert P Day ago

    Europeans are not out of Africa it's been proved 10x over

  • That Mask I Wear

    To bad thanos snaped the neaderthals

  • Mob Rules
    Mob Rules Day ago

    For the answers you are looking for, check in the Samarian Texts and Scrolls. Also, you did not discuss blood types and I know why.

  • allgoo19
    allgoo19 Day ago

    In short, homo sapiens survived because we are horn dogs.

  • steven gin
    steven gin Day ago

    They live underground, yup they’re like goblin mole people now, troast me

  • Carla Ferraccini

    Basically... We were better at breading than the others. How peculiar

  • Adrian F
    Adrian F Day ago

    I like that ending

  • Gabe M.
    Gabe M. Day ago +1


  • Billy G Diaz
    Billy G Diaz Day ago

    It is scientifically accepted that people from the Old World brought diseases the New World that destroyed most of the local population (some survived long enough to inter-breed), why don't scientists study the possibility that in the Old World when people from the south traveled north, they brought diseases that destroyed most of the local population; Neanderthals and Denisovans (some survived long enough to inter-breed).

  • Oki Krisbianto
    Oki Krisbianto Day ago

    I feel sad for them. I wish they were never extinct

  • Bakunawa BenHierro

    the last of the man bear pigs :D

  • Bakunawa BenHierro

    what if our ancestors called all the other homonids orcs and elves or some other tokien stuff.. lol :D

  • Koroi 117
    Koroi 117 2 days ago

    I love TVclip. .. the universal Library for cyber humans

    MANDO 2 days ago


  • Locutus De Borg
    Locutus De Borg 2 days ago

    Cro Magnons, Neanderthals, Denisovans, and Sub-Saharan Hominids. Even back then, races were still a thing people

  • Wilbur Mcbride
    Wilbur Mcbride 2 days ago

    Neanderthals didn't just go extinct but was genocide off by the Cro-magnum. The evil side of our human nature.

  • jack jones
    jack jones 2 days ago +1

    there are 13 different species living on the earth right now we are the most populous.

  • PaulaMarie
    PaulaMarie 2 days ago +1

    Is this the same SciShow guy?

  • Donald Trump
    Donald Trump 2 days ago +1

    We were the stupid one left out by annunaki

  • Kayla Robertson
    Kayla Robertson 2 days ago

    Fantastic episode!

  • Russell Contreras
    Russell Contreras 2 days ago

    Is that Steven Suptic

  • Ken Schmitt
    Ken Schmitt 3 days ago

    mitocontrial dna?.. isnt not rna?

  • Sammy Lee
    Sammy Lee 3 days ago

    And that's why Eastern Europeans keep winning worlds strongest man cos of Neanderthal gene

  • nightlightabcd
    nightlightabcd 3 days ago

    Resistance is futile! We will absorb your technology and DNA into that of our own! Yes, we used to think that we hunted you all down and killed you all to extinction, but now we think that we were your friends and relatives and you all died out own your own and we alone are left to carry on your legacy!!

  • Couscous Guy
    Couscous Guy 3 days ago +10

    I wish i could've clapped some neanderthal cheeks.

  • TheReal Mexican American

    When Homo Sapiens leave Africa and meet Neanderthals
    Homo Sapiens: *Ayo, Hol Up*

  • Kasia
    Kasia 3 days ago

    Actually, there exist many archeological sites with findings of bones of mass-murdered people of all sexes and ages, who were clearly killed with a use of human-made weapon, so I believe that if Homo Sapiens Sapiens were able to do that to each other (even long after the Neanderthals went extinct), than I supposed they would be just as able to do that to any other hominids.

  • Chip Walter
    Chip Walter 3 days ago

    Despite all evidence of human behavior throughout history, we're asked to consider the proposal that humans who would've been in direct competition with (other tribes of humans as well as) Neanderthals and Denisovans DIDN'T actively wipe out those less adapted species.
    It's a cute flight-of-fancy but very contrary to all historical precedent.

  • Angel Midknight
    Angel Midknight 3 days ago

    "Simo de los juesos" me encanta su acento X'D

  • luke ploughman
    luke ploughman 3 days ago

    We co-opted them

  • Michael Timpson
    Michael Timpson 3 days ago +1

    what about Flores Man?

    • F. Jefferson
      F. Jefferson 19 hours ago

      these offshoots (Floresiensis and Luzonensis) are mysterious to us, but unlikely they had any interaction with us, otherwise, they would have been extinct much sooner.

  • Donnie Fermor
    Donnie Fermor 3 days ago

    You don't say anything about Australian Aboriginal brain Less

  • Bernardo Puppin
    Bernardo Puppin 4 days ago +1

    Is it weird that I miss the Neanderthals like an old friend that said goodbye?

  • Richard Deese
    Richard Deese 4 days ago

    Thanks! Although I know there's no evidence for it - or against it, I can't help but seriously wonder if there was some bit of nastiness that led to us being the dominant hominin. I certainly wouldn't put it past us, knowing modern history. 𝓡𝓲𝓴𝓴𝓲 𝓣𝓲𝓴𝓴𝓲.

  • freddie naputi
    freddie naputi 4 days ago +1

    This brings new meaning to "It's a small world after all."

  • Jennifer Lopez
    Jennifer Lopez 4 days ago +2

    So we only survived because we wouldnt control our peepees.

  • Jack Carter
    Jack Carter 4 days ago +2

    I live in the multicultural Western world, I meet other hominid species everyday lol.

    • F. Jefferson
      F. Jefferson 19 hours ago

      I know you are joking, but it is true that present humans do have a lot of genetic diversity, it's a scientific fact.

  • Mar B.
    Mar B. 4 days ago

    everybody say thank you neanderthals

  • Mar B.
    Mar B. 4 days ago +2

    that man bun tho *chefs kiss*

  • Hugues Laliberte
    Hugues Laliberte 4 days ago

    Wisdom teeth...ugh...ouchy

  • Trange Frui
    Trange Frui 4 days ago

    Neanderthal and Denisovian DNA explains why non-african humans are so much smarter than african humans

    • F. Jefferson
      F. Jefferson 19 hours ago

      your bias causes misunderstanding of science. Both sides are biased.

    • George P
      George P Day ago +1

      Not that simple. Africans also have archaic hominin introgression. But intelligence is a very complex thing and we are still far from understanding the phenotype-genotype link (there are GWAS of intelligence, but still in its infancy).

    • Jan Willis
      Jan Willis 2 days ago +2

      Non-sense. Smart genes most probably evolved when humans first formed organized large-group cohabitation and societies, leading to statehood and civilization within the last 10 kyr. That was way past the time Sapiens bred with Neanderthal and Denisovan.

  • Name Last Name
    Name Last Name 4 days ago

    mmm.. neanderthals... we obviously used them as slaves.

  • puttputt524
    puttputt524 4 days ago +1

    Yeah I know you were looking at Neanderthal shawty.

  • fajar setiawan
    fajar setiawan 4 days ago

    how about cro-magnon ?

  • Pandorasoul
    Pandorasoul 5 days ago +1

    If people from eurasia have such a different DNA content and origin from sub Sahara africans, would not that mean that they are a different species? Or variations of sub species?

    • F. Jefferson
      F. Jefferson 18 hours ago

      @Kolli Wanne Other poster already replied to you. But you can get yourself 40-yr updated to modern genetics science by reading more recent articles. Race is just a layman term to express human diversity, but it is not about "look" (the scientific term is "phenotype"), it is about genome ("genotype"). Human groups of all continents have independently evolved new adaptation for ten thousand of years and hence have very distinct genetic makeup. A computer (i. e. a classification algorithm) can easily group any given individual into his/her ancestral cluster). What so remarkable is that very different algorithms, such as decision tree, random forest, SVM, neural network, etc. all group the clusters exactly the same way. It means that human groups do have very distinguishable genomic differences. However, it is not science business to say what that means, and it is outright fraudulent to claim the difference as the basis for behavioral or cultural difference. We only see genotype differences, and barely scratch the surface of implication on phenotype differences (read this for your amusement: udel.edu/~mcdonald/mythearwax.html ). Hence, we are still decades away from linking human group genomic differences to behavioral differences.

    • desert wind
      desert wind Day ago +1

      @Kolli Wanne Philippine Negritos, Andanamese look like Sub-Saharan Africans, yet they are genetically quite different. Race isn't how one looks. Go to this paper: www.nature.com/articles/srep29890. However, this dialog serves no useful purpose because you only choose to believe what you want and feel comfortable, not reality. Your opinion on the Internet doesn't change the outcome of a comprehensive scientific research involving many experts, published in a most prestigious peer-reviewed journal. Bye.

    • Kolli Wanne
      Kolli Wanne 2 days ago

      @desert wind The regional probability of finding certain genes is everywhere different, but even in asia its exactly this, a probability, since people tend to travel ;)
      Race is a vague term for a certain phenotype but that is not a precise category.
      "Species" for example is an actual biologically usable term with definition. Race is simply "what does he look like".

    • desert wind
      desert wind 2 days ago +2

      @Kolli Wanne Also, Chinese as well as other Eastern Asian research scientists have identified genomic uniqueness of Eastern Asian population. They recognized themselves as being genomic-wise distinctive from Caucasian and SSA. (Google Beijing Genomics Institute, which provides genomic data for Asian pharmaceutical to develop Asian medicine). Only SSA insist being biological indistinguishable ("race is social construct"- the ancient Lewontin fallacy) from other human groups, why is that?

    • desert wind
      desert wind 2 days ago +2

      @Kolli Wanne have you heard 23 and me? Send them your DNA and they will tell how many percent of you are Sub-Saharan African. They don't know who you are or what "social construct" you belong to. Just your genome and they can identify you. That's the definition of biological basis.

  • Bradknightable
    Bradknightable 5 days ago +8

    If the purpose of life is to pass on genes to the next generation all the other hominids were successful.

  • Sean Russell
    Sean Russell 5 days ago

    So we don't know what sub species of hominid sub Saharan Africans had dalliances with? But Europeans were oh look, the lady has some fine thick brow ridges. Imma get me a piece of that... Sounds about right.

  • Adrastos O
    Adrastos O 5 days ago +7

    It makes sense the Neanderthal genes are still in many people, I have actually met people that have features similar such as big brow ridges.....

  • Timoteo Luna
    Timoteo Luna 5 days ago

    Hey mister , I am 3.8% denisovan and neanderthal and I am damn proud of it. 👺

  • spikefivefivefive
    spikefivefivefive 5 days ago

    So is the definition of "modern human" a person with Neanderthal ancestry?

  • Tree Climbing
    Tree Climbing 5 days ago

    Through the magic of cannabis, mankinds’ different species got frisky.
    first Hump day calendar found with cannabis stains. 200,000 BC
    Which doesn’t explain the different races tho.

  • Roach DoggJR
    Roach DoggJR 5 days ago

    Maybe is better that they went away before civilization. We can't get alone today because of our different skin tones by making psudo-scientific arguments to link some sort of superiority with lack of melanin on the skin, I don't want to know how it would be if other hominins were around.

  • Cat Savage
    Cat Savage 5 days ago

    We will kill them out of fear they will be better then us

  • Rebecca Andresen
    Rebecca Andresen 6 days ago

    What about a video about cro-magnon humans?? I think that would be really interesting as we’ve found evidence of them having funeral rituals and some kind of religious belief. I know this is more of a science based channel, but it’d be really interesting to learn about the remains we’ve found and what it tells us about their bodies and lifestyles!

  • herrikudo
    herrikudo 6 days ago

    We need to seriously reevaluate our archeological studies and methods. Think of what else we may have already found and misidentified

  • Nathan Loitz
    Nathan Loitz 6 days ago

    Minecraft music in the background

  • Maher Makki
    Maher Makki 6 days ago

    Hank Green is literally the new Bill Nye. I`m seeing him everywhere I search something science-based. not bad Hank, your a cool guy so I don't mind.

  • Kohlenstoffisotop12
    Kohlenstoffisotop12 6 days ago

    Competition is a nice word for what might happened.

  • Aeternitatem
    Aeternitatem 6 days ago

    I have that same shirt

  • Twee Dopp Stunner
    Twee Dopp Stunner 6 days ago

    Modern humans killed the neanderthals so they could clone them in future😂

  • DiamondBones007
    DiamondBones007 7 days ago +1

    This was really cool :>