Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?

  • Published on Mar 20, 2019
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    The power of Dark Energy may be increasing as the universe ages. Subtle clues are emerging that the accepted model for the nature of dark energy and dark matter may not be all that. We saw the first such clue recently in our recent episode on the Crisis in Cosmology. Today we’re doing a Space Time Journal Club to reveal another clue. We’re looking at a new paper in Nature Astronomy, “Cosmological constraints from the Hubble diagram of quasars at high redshifts” by Risaliti and Lusso. It hints that the cosmological constant may not be so constant after all. In fact it may be increasing. If this is true, then our prediction for the future of our universe looks VERY different, and may involve the entire universe tearing itself to shreds at the subatomic level in the Big Rip.
    On this edition of Space Time Journal Club we look at:
    Risaliti & Lusso (2019) "Cosmological Constraints from the Hubble Diagram of Quasars at High Redshifts"
    #darkenergy #darkmatter #spacetime
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Comments • 1 793

  • gary schraa
    gary schraa 10 hours ago

    Dark energy is that which keeps space from being sticky . It's a lubricant or surfactant . Of course I cant prove this as I am not a scientist , I am a bone head ______ not a melon head

  • Stan TheObserver
    Stan TheObserver 6 days ago

    Can or will dark energy rip itself to nothingness one day?

  • HolyWrath
    HolyWrath 7 days ago

    I believe dark matter is ocilating.

  • jackay k
    jackay k 9 days ago

    Dark matter and dark energy are real but it's for heaven or maybe earth also not for humans may be it's like flesh of heaven but it's also exist in earth another form or face or colour if it passes by you you feel massless Ness vaccum nausea in your mind that's what we know as a Muslim but I won't tell the full truth to call me mad religion dog .but it's not hand of god or any any type of part of god .

  • Faizan Shaikh
    Faizan Shaikh 12 days ago

    I woke up. I watch new video and I start my day

  • Kevin McMahon
    Kevin McMahon 12 days ago

    It is strange that Space-Time is expanding in the space between the Galaxies, but not the space within the atom. Are gravity wells the least likely place to find Dark Energy and Dark Matter?

  • Adam Watts
    Adam Watts 16 days ago

    I love how well you brought an academic journal article into means that most layman like myself with just a general interest in physics and cosmology can understand! Thank you. please do some more!

  • N L
    N L 18 days ago

    There's a lot we don't understand, but it's pretty clear that dark energy is not a constant. It doesn't mean it will increase forever though.

  • Christian Anderson
    Christian Anderson 19 days ago

    What we see in the visible observable universe is what they was millions and billions of years ago at this current time now everything must be gone anything that is 500 million light years or more away think about it if light took a half a billion years to get here or 100 billions light years away those objects no longer exist in theory maybe that's why we see the expansion of the universe speeding up we could be in a totally empty cold universe where the light we see from so far away those objects in are currently space time no longer exist in theory

  • viod vue
    viod vue 23 days ago

    "The great courses plus" Plus what?

  • Charles Rockafellor
    Charles Rockafellor 27 days ago

    The material is good material, the presentation is professional and concise... but while the words are dead-on, the cadence and body language argue from rhetoric. PBS Space Time always _feels_ like a snake oil sales pitch, even given the otherwise accurate data. :-(

  • Motesoul
    Motesoul 27 days ago

    10:30 ZIPF

  • jhwheuer
    jhwheuer 28 days ago

    So in other words... if something changes the light of the standard candles unexpectedly, all our measurements are off...

  • Dobby Dazzler
    Dobby Dazzler Month ago

    Always awesome, always inspiring. Thanks SpaceTime xxx

  • Glenn B
    Glenn B Month ago

    Those two Nobel winning teams that 'wrote the text book on dark energy' (as you put it) in the early 90s, overlooked the most ubiquitous cosmological quality, neglecting to include it in their calculations, which would have shown that universal expansion was SLOWING not increasing. Yes now everyone takes their findings as Gospel. What a cosmological cock up!

  • // nostromov
    // nostromov Month ago

    Yeah, ok, but, it's "supernovaS"

  • Mr Mellon
    Mr Mellon Month ago +1

    I wonder if space isn't expanding, but "falling" outwards. Local gravity may have slowed the falling rate early but just like gravity from matter, spacetime is falling like the center of gravity is just outward. I wonder if that could be calculated

  • mastrtonberry2
    mastrtonberry2 Month ago

    I like all the Star Trek SFX

  • David Fuller
    David Fuller Month ago

    Shamanistic Witch Doctor of Physics Jargon

  • Accutronitis The 2nd

    This channel never fails to expand my knowledge of our universe!

  • Matt Woodruff
    Matt Woodruff Month ago

    You guys have great content but a terrible intro song. You need something more pumped up and melodic.

  • ijams sum
    ijams sum Month ago

    They make incorrect assumptions looking back thru time 14-15 billion years ago matter and the laws of physics operated the same as now with no dilation ?
    Looking back at the early universe it should be expanding fast from the big bang and slowed down later by gravitational forces of mass when gravity was established !
    There is no dark matter energy only the universe before physical laws were fully established and what they see happening back then is not the laws today, change set in over some time !
    The early universe had little matter to absorb the great energy from the beginning , later the mass assumed physical laws of attraction and absorbed the energy to slow down the Galaxies enough to be stable !
    What they are seeing is not even happening today , its 15 billion years ago !
    No intuition in science is used only cold incorrect math lacking all the laws of the universe !
    Only some laws are known , we are infants at cosmology as intuition has been left behind and no insight is used in science academia in cosmology today and they are more lost than they ever hoped to be lol !
    Corona Fusion is the correct theory of our Sun not core fusion and the data is right in front of them but they are blinded by a failed theory to protect science academia from being very wrong from the start ?
    Cosmology is a farce in many areas and it takes genius to invent a invisible energy dark matter to explain away there failings because you cannot disprove the invisible !
    See how science academia works , so now they say it takes 40,000 years for photons at our Suns core to reach the surface of the Sun to explain away the very low surface temperature on the Sun ????
    Genius to invent a theory to protect your failed theory so the public cannot see the mistaken theories in our textbooks ?
    Once you wake up and see the truth you see how little we know and how what has been portrayed as fact is false science and still in textbooks !
    No morals allowed because science must be protected from itself by inventing theories that cannot be disproved !
    Dark Matter is just such a invention , because they are lost without a clue of intuition ?
    Dimensional travel and traveling past the speed of light is possible , but you must create a field around a craft the blocks subatomic entanglement that lets the craft have zero mass in our space dimension and blocking our physical laws is all it takes but few people can even think this is possible ?
    Once you see a UFO your mind opens up very much , and the reality sets in we are to be deceived completely from the truth as science has zero morals !

  • Chad Davis
    Chad Davis Month ago

    I think that there could be a possible error in the interpretation of the redshift increase from the quasar measurement, the dark energy being observed getting stronger around using these quasars could be the black hole expanding space by condensing energy to negative energy. There must be a way to measure this dark energy increase in relation to a few relative nearby black holes to one another and the red shift observed between there varying masses and amount of matter being consumed via the size of its accretion disc, assuming that something will be observed by this would give us an approximation of how much new space/dark energy is being created from the amount energy being converted in s black hole

  • Nicholas Pdx
    Nicholas Pdx Month ago

    How are you accessing my phone? I see you too..

  • TGK_Llama YT
    TGK_Llama YT Month ago

    This is the time that we need Thanos to get on the good sid

  • Trev Ashton
    Trev Ashton Month ago

    Out of curiosity, Has dark matter been found in galaxies that DONT have super massive black holes?

  • Philip Moran
    Philip Moran Month ago

    Gravity can be explained if everything expanded by 1/1000th per second!

  • Kane Morison
    Kane Morison Month ago

    Dark Energy maybe from the collapse of the first big 3 stars into black holes theses black holes having eaten all the local matter around. Collapse explode fragment into pockets of collapsing Matter Dark Energy just a guess way off

  • vivalafiaga
    vivalafiaga 2 months ago

    What if the entire universe is simply descending into an unimaginably huge black hole?

  • Bangla Desh
    Bangla Desh 2 months ago

    "Dark energy" is just the positive curvature of spacetime in the absence of mass on large scales directly proportionate to the density of mass on galactic scales. It's kind of counter intuitive but I've done all the calculations and wrote 2 papers on it, but 6 journals have refused to publish my work as they're invested in other theories. True story.

  • Matlockization
    Matlockization 2 months ago

    Dark energy is not getting stronger but darker !

  • Derrick Bommarito
    Derrick Bommarito 2 months ago

    What would the universe look like (besides very dark) to the last remaining animals when a big rip changes the universe enough to become observable? What new chemistry might result that becomes dominant over what I would expect to be a very long period of slow atomic tearing? Does the big rip result in everything inevitably turning itself into WonkaVision static?

  • Brett Augustine
    Brett Augustine 2 months ago

    Is that a cockmonaut on your shirt?

  • GIJosh
    GIJosh 2 months ago

    Next April 1st, they need to make a video that asks a question, and answers with "yes" or "no", then end the video.

  • Waizwaid Arenosa
    Waizwaid Arenosa 2 months ago

    I love this guy; I don't believe he is human; he is too advanced. Nevertheless, I love him. I can listen to him forever.

  • Cerberus
    Cerberus 2 months ago

    I think Entropy is definitely getting stronger.

  • Arun Sasi
    Arun Sasi 2 months ago

    Very hypothetical question! Assuming lambda is not uniform across space, will relative expansion of space have relativistic effects on each other?

  • Harry ToyShirt
    Harry ToyShirt 2 months ago

    So much for "dahk" energy. Someone send a boatload of R's to the Brits.

  • nope sorry
    nope sorry 2 months ago

    spacetime tearing itself to shreds on the subatomic level... well that certainly would be a big R.I.P

  • Gabrielle Grandcamp
    Gabrielle Grandcamp 2 months ago

    WHAT IF there was no dark energy at all, like the gravitation isn't a force but more like a propriety of the structure of the space time universe, I'm wondering, what if what we call dark energy is in fact the response of the space time fabric to gravity, like if I put a finger on a baloon, if i press hard, outside this zone of the pressure caused by my finger, the balloon is expanding, so maybe, the expansion is accelerating because there are nothing to stop this expansion, unlike the balloon. So the filaments of galaxies is in fact valleys in a 3d space, caused by the mass of the galaxies themselves, galaxies "squeezed" by monts of void (or less dense universe) created in consequence of their mass pushing on the space time fabric, like fingers on a balloon ?
    (sorry I'm french, I hope I'm a bit comprehensible)
    and it's like an answer of the period the universe didn't expand, the space was not enough big to permit the creation of valleys caused by gravity

    and maybe, maybe, the acceleration of the expansion is caused by what black holes do in the space time fabric, an expansion fuelled by the infinite mass in the center of the black holes ?

  • Dom Trussardi
    Dom Trussardi 2 months ago +1

    If there was a "NIgga...the hell you talkin bout?" meme, this guy would show up in half of them.

  • Jordan Bayless
    Jordan Bayless 2 months ago


    ALT SOLUTIONS LIMITED 2 months ago

    Any energy has quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Stronger or weaker is just the degree of impact in a certain place on a certain object. It is more reasonable to talk about the quality of energy and its use in real life. Accordingly, management of this energy.

  • ofsinope
    ofsinope 2 months ago

    That moment when he says "spacetime" at the end

  • Jesse Mai
    Jesse Mai 2 months ago

    show me the math, intuitively I disagree on both experimental and theoretical platforms... show me the math for corrected theoretical measurements and the math for the theory behind it

  • Sandy
    Sandy 2 months ago

    i feel intelligent after clicking this video...even though I don't understand what he says

  • Jay Antani
    Jay Antani 2 months ago

    Cool Video!

  • James Alexander
    James Alexander 2 months ago

    maybe the entropy of the universe is increasing which would explain it's expansion just like a piece of metal or being that this may only be a short period of rapid expansion; somewhat like an oven that may sit at say 350F for several seconds or more before actually reaching the next digit in temperature. Of course in reality, this may be a period of chaos, destruction & growth in the universe. People often misinterpret current events because they perceive reality to be steady without considering acceleration/deceleration

  • Ne, oder?
    Ne, oder? 3 months ago

    12:33 says all about spacetime

  • Sami Saieed
    Sami Saieed 3 months ago

    Totally, An epic episode

  • John Foyer
    John Foyer 3 months ago

    So this is the cosmic error He spoke of. Hm...well let's say I had a...conversation with a...deity that claimed he was the...creator. he spoke of this miscalculation that was originating from the effects black holes were having on the space time weave of the fabrics within the universe. The miscalculation was the gravitational effect of the first moments when particles first formed. The excess build up of particle formation led to the formation of black holes and the model of creation was a constant spherical shape that would expand and then retract. However o proposed a new algorithm to the model that would redistribute the excess particle energy to instead imbed themselves into the cosmic microwave background and using the energy generated by the particles and motion into and along the CMB to fill in the inconsistencies due to gravitational effects, then using the energy remainder to interweave itself with the fabric of particles stretching the borders of the universe infinitely outward, reinforcing the newly formed particles and allowing them to settle into the formation of matter without the gravitational build up the less to black hole formation. It was about thay time I woke up spitting up the lung fluid that had built up in my lungs while I was sleeping that night...

  • Luke Tyas
    Luke Tyas 3 months ago

    E Lusso is my next door neighbour, and one of the most wonderful humans in the Universe.

  • Walt F.
    Walt F. 3 months ago

    Could dark energy have a waveform? Could the expansion of space come in waves? An unaccelerated phase followed by an accelerated phase, followed again by an unaccelerated phase, and so on ad infinitum?

  • SketchyJay o.o
    SketchyJay o.o 3 months ago

    Could dark energy be caused by a layer of matter/charge which surrounds the universe. During the big bang this "shell" would have been expanded, possibly increasing the "space" between it and all other matter within the universe - reducing interactive forces. This could initially slow the expansion of the universe, however it's ability to expand without fracture could suggest 'elasticity' and would therefore recoil. Eventually this recoil would provide an inward pressure, while increasing the strength of interactive forces - increasing its pull on everything internal. This could therefore create the "illusion" that the expansion is accelerating when in actual fact space is in recession.

  • kaczan3
    kaczan3 3 months ago

    I love the music during the 14:41 anyone got a link for that?

  • Blair Macdonald
    Blair Macdonald 3 months ago


  • Mr Temporal
    Mr Temporal 3 months ago

    Nice thumbnail

  • Kickin Rocks
    Kickin Rocks 3 months ago

    Starting a band...
    Tommy Terror and the Big Rip
    Quantum Physic and the Maths
    Bonaparte and the Big Bang
    White Hole and the Dark Matter
    Particle and the Waves
    Entry Lovell and the 101's
    Tyson Swarm and the Suns
    10 Billion Days to Die
    The Eight Planets
    Celestial Hot Bodies
    When Iron Collides
    Lifeless XO's

  • Gsup7s
    Gsup7s 3 months ago

    Of course it's getting stronger. It's an unlimited free energy source. According to you.

  • Potato Gang
    Potato Gang 3 months ago

    You know I don't really understand because I'm only 8 years old.

  • JorDef
    JorDef 3 months ago

    I´m dumb, the earth is flat, there´s no cosmos there´s only god. We´re the center of all. No Jesus in this video. Because of all that I´m giving this video a dislike.
    Better go to church and spend money on crucifixes. You all will burn in hell!

  • FalconPunch827
    FalconPunch827 3 months ago

    Dark energy is a perfect metaphor for my father. Permeates through all existence but no one has a clue where it is.

  • Sledcat
    Sledcat 3 months ago

    Supernov eh!

  • nolan412
    nolan412 3 months ago

    Big phase change?

  • Chris Ritchie
    Chris Ritchie 3 months ago

    I discovered The Big Rip in my pants

  • Mike Price
    Mike Price 3 months ago

    I think part of the problem is we are using Euclid's yardstick instead of Mandelbrot yardstick

  • Gold161803
    Gold161803 3 months ago

    Take a shot every time the CMB graphic shows up in a Spacetime video

  • Deep Recce
    Deep Recce 3 months ago

    Question..How do we know the Universe expansion is not slowing down? We know its accelerating only because the further we see the greater the red shift right? But how does it measure up over time, as in maybe in a 1000 years time we see minute change in the expansion vs the current measurement? Also the further we see, meant that we are looking nearer to the beginning of the Universe where acceleration and expansion is greater nearer to the Big Bang..isnt it only natural to read a greater red shift as we see further away or rather further back in time??

  • GateMessenger
    GateMessenger 3 months ago

    The theory is a quasar is a black hole consuming matter at a continuous rate but that is not so. Quasars are actually old galaxies which contain a large amount of stars, plentiful and extremely close together. The older the galaxy is the brighter it shines.
    Black holes cannot devour matter because of the action that is causing gravity, mentioned in a previous comment. There was no big bang but a slow continuous growth. There is more gravity, matter, energy and space in the universe today than there was yesterday. There is more now than there was in the beginning when the universe did not contain gravity, matter, energy and space. Back then the universe only contained potential gravity, energy, matter and space in time.

  • GateMessenger
    GateMessenger 3 months ago

    The cosmic microwave background radiation map is the result of a manipulation in data, thus unreliable for any study.

  • GateMessenger
    GateMessenger 3 months ago

    No, a big rip will never happen because as new matter is made in space, see pair production and virtual particle theories, space increases in volume (dark energy). It is not being torn apart but increasing in volume like a balloon being filled with air. New particles are made when energy comes to a rest, i.e., m=E/c^2. This is why virtual particles appear to pop into existence in the sun's corona. See the newest ring discovered by astrophysicists orbiting Saturn.
    When new particle pop into existence in the sun's corona they make light, heat and pairs of particles (plasma). It explains why the sun's corona is millions of degrees hotter than it's surface. This is why stars grow in mass and size over time. Stars cannot 'burn up' over time because mass is constantly added to them.
    Yes, I know this is conjecture for now. Let's wait and see what the Parker probe discovers.

  • GateMessenger
    GateMessenger 3 months ago

    The lambda CDM 'cold dark matter' model is incorrect and incomplete. The cosmological constant was zero, not accelerating nor decelerating, i.e., a plus one or negative one thus it does not describe the expansion of the universe. Anyone who thinks otherwise needs to go back to school and study it some more.

  • GateMessenger
    GateMessenger 3 months ago

    To answer your question, yes. The energy potential of the universe increases ever so slowly everywhere there is mass. See mass, in order to produce gravity has to have an equal opposite counterpart. When energy is produced inside of mass it escapes, quantum tunneling through matter, and produces a reaction to cold space, causing it to warp or bend, i.e., move in an opposite direction to the energy escaping mass. This was actually measured by the GRACE satellites. Gravity is stronger in the locations where energy is escaping the planet the most and gravity is weaker in the areas where energy escaping the surface is hindered by denser mass.
    Thus the same action responsible for gravity is also responsible for the expansion or addition of energy that occurs to space, i.e., dark energy. So yes, as long as mass is able to produce gravity it will continue to add new energy (dark) to space. This is why the Hubble constant, Ho is never the same when measured. Astrophysicists continue to come up with different rates to the universe's expansion with every measurement.
    This can even explain why stars move faster than what Einstein's field equations predicted, i.e., dark matter.

  • Bradley Carter
    Bradley Carter 3 months ago +2

    If all galaxies emit light and electromagnetic radiation in all directions simultaneously all the time, wouldn't the fields from the surrounding galaxies eventually meet and cause some sort or reflection thus pushing the galaxies further apart and explain dark energy?

    POSH MARK 3 months ago

    I hope not!

  • Derek Currie
    Derek Currie 3 months ago

    *_"light_*_ noun_
    *_1_*_ the natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things _*_visible:_*_ the light of the sun | [in singular] : the lamps in the street shed a faint light into the room._

  • Marcin Skrobański
    Marcin Skrobański 3 months ago

    have you ever tried gluon-free diet?

  • Ryan Flores
    Ryan Flores 3 months ago

    I have been talking and hearing a lot about the correlation of this and tachyon particles. Supposedly faster than the speed of light. Any potential videos on this?

  • Aby
    Aby 3 months ago havent considered that ark energy travels at least twice as fast as light can?! and that light speed depends on dark energy speed....not ot mention that thos light partciles that ae at teh edge of he big bang hypothesys need space to travel in for them to move out, menaing that dark matte rmust preceed light in its journey and create space time

  • Hydra
    Hydra 3 months ago

    My fucking brain

  • Zbigniew Modrzejewski
    Zbigniew Modrzejewski 3 months ago +1

    Dark Energy canNOT be Getting Stronger, because it does not exist.

  • Morbid Angel
    Morbid Angel 3 months ago

    Love the channel , love the science , still have no idea what dark energy is... hate my life....

  • Jeremy Castle
    Jeremy Castle 3 months ago

    Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) allegedly discovered galaxies completely or nearly devoid of dark matter.

  • Abraham Mekonnen
    Abraham Mekonnen 3 months ago

    Out of curiosity is there any chance that dark energy is just space itself?

  • Vesa Kankkunen
    Vesa Kankkunen 3 months ago

    What if theres a huge black hole all ower the known universum acting like event horizont and phantom energy?

  • Narendra kumar
    Narendra kumar 3 months ago +2

    Sir please give a video for quantum spin....

  • Schlomo Finkelstein
    Schlomo Finkelstein 3 months ago

    13:56 xD

  • Korhanne
    Korhanne 3 months ago +1

    does my accretion disk make my butt look big?

  • Ibnul Hussaini
    Ibnul Hussaini 3 months ago +1

    That's fucken lit my dude! What's the value of the Hubble constant using this method vs the other standard candles & the CMB?

  • mR iOuS
    mR iOuS 3 months ago

    If the CMB gets shorter under the Rip Theory, the distance, just feels like to me, should have constant fluctuation.

  • ChrisBrengel
    ChrisBrengel 3 months ago +1

    So quasars are a hot mess...literally. LOL!

  • Bruce Liu
    Bruce Liu 3 months ago

    The rate of exploding stars? Might be dark energy.

  • Marvels Engineer
    Marvels Engineer 3 months ago

    Dark energy could be hidden energy which is multiplying constantly

  • Dudealus
    Dudealus 3 months ago

    After the Big Rip, would particles still be able to interact with the Higgs Field? Or would they all become massless, experience no internal evolution, and never bump into another particle, making the events before the Big Rip the last events ever to happen. Time would cease to exist.

  • Guillaume P
    Guillaume P 3 months ago +1

    Hey! Why don't you do a video on the recent discovery of CP Violation in the charm sector by the LHCb Experiment?

  • Dimitrios Thanos
    Dimitrios Thanos 3 months ago

  • gh hj
    gh hj 3 months ago

    That black stuff is surely laughing...
    black stuff: "MUAHA!... All of these stars, planets, tiny things and beings ALL IN ME, ALL OF THEM! MUAHA... HA... HAAA! How great am I? I can't even go anywhere, I am everywhere! MUAHAHAAAaaaa. The star prays to me and the tiny being prays to the star... huhuhuhu... MUAHAHAHAAaaa!".

  • The Wise Wizard
    The Wise Wizard 3 months ago

  • John Farris
    John Farris 3 months ago

    When I think of Entanglement I keep seeing hard and massless. Waves need time. Hard isn't real anyway even though it kinda is.

  • Corey Patterson
    Corey Patterson 3 months ago

    I’m very curious how Matt feels about the Janus Model. I know he mentioned it, but I wonder how far he dug into it. It’s hard to overstate how elegantly the notion of two conjugated manifolds ties dark energy/matter into a neat little bow to be explained. The math is perhaps not so elegant, but the explanation for why dark matter/energy behaves like it does is so exceedingly intuitive that everything else feels highly convoluted and improbable. After spending enough time with the JCM, using the concordance model feels like being a blind man groping in the dark.

    • Corey Patterson
      Corey Patterson 3 months ago

      (Continued pt 3)
      Think about two scenarios. In one a much greater mass of marbles is dropped on the sheet; in the other a far greater mass of balloons are released under the sheet. How do we imagine these joined systems interact? A bit of logical thinking and we can conclude that the accretion pattern of the dominant mass in any given area of the sheet will determine the pattern of curvature. That is to say, if there are more balloons we will see hills with valleys full of marbles; if there are more marbles, however, we will see pockets full of marbles depress into bowls formed by ridges of balloons. Current cosmological models insist there's more dark matter than regular matter. If visible matter takes the pattern of the former, we can assume there is more inverted mass in the area. If visible matter takes the pattern of the latter, we can assume there is more regular mass in the area.
      The standard model of the universe describe large galaxy clusters linked by hundred-lightyear long threads of galaxies surrounding massive empty voids. This can be pictured like bubbles from a pot full of dish soap. Planes of soap would be fairly rarified areas of matter, lines would be the galactic threads, and vertices of the bubbles would be galactic clusters. The ΛCDM model proposes "galactic filaments" which accrete around threads of dark matter. I will not emphasize problems with that, as I feel it is more productive to emphasize the very specific way this bimetric understanding of the manifold accords with reality (or at least our observations of reality). When we look at the universe on a grand scale, it seems to imply there is a greater distribution of inverted masses due to the filamentous shape. We see big voids full of “empty space” with apparent energy content, thus conclude dark matter. So on the universal scale the balloons of inverted mass matter are pushing regular matter marbles into “filaments” or valleys, but on the scale of our local group the marbles representing galaxies are held in rotation by the inverted matter surrounding them since there aren’t enough marbles to break past the balloons.
      My point in relation to THIS video (finally) is that if the Janus model is at all accurate, then it stands to reason that the “energy of the vacuum” could be the average energy density of all inverted mass as it slowly accretes in the massive voids between galaxies. That would explain why the expansion doesn’t happen in areas rich with positive-mass matter. Thus, if mass in the universe is somehow being inverted, perhaps in the center of a critical-mass neutron star (google “1916 Schwarzschild on the gravitational field of a sphere of incompressible fluid according to Einsteins theory”) we can assume that this inverted mass will simply increase the accretion rate of the voids, and therefore the expansion rate of the universe.
      Not sure I buy it, but it’s a hell of a better story than “mystery energy” and “matter we can’t find”.

    • Corey Patterson
      Corey Patterson 3 months ago

      (Continued pt 2)
      So if we want to consider it this way, we need two metrics g(+)µν and g(−)µν from which two different families of geodesics are calculated, referring to positive mass particles and negative mass particles, respectively. From these metrics, we calculate Ricci tensors R (+) µν and R (−) µν as well as Ricci scalars R(+) and R(−) .
      This crude 2-dimensional analogy is merely used to explain things, but it does helps illustrates what may be happening in our very own 4-dimensional universe. I prefer to refer to "negative mass" as "inverted mass" simply because, the way that this model requires you to look at it, negative mass is not an intrinsic feature of some "exotic matter", but instead stems from topological consequences; it is purely relative. The "bigravity" associated with inverted masses is an extension of general relativity describing the universe as a Riemannian manifold associated to two conjugated metrics generating their own geodesics, solutions of two coupled Einstein field equations.
      The second equation gives the metric and spatial curvature for the "negative sector" of the manifold. This is the equivalent to being on the balloon side of the sheet. Positive mass (marbles), viewed from the underside of the sheet, will produce a negative curvature and an anti-gravitational effect. The system of two coupled field equations involves a 4D hypersurface with two sides, each type of mass belonging to its own metric. What is important to note however, is that the two field equations are coupled, i.e. a mass always creates a positive curvature in space-time according to its own metric (where the mass appears visible), and it also always induces a negative curvature in the conjugate metric (where the mass appears invisible).
      To reiterate, "negative mass" is not an intrinsic feature of some exotic matter. It is nothing but the (anti)gravitational effect produced by any mass, when observed from the opposite sector. According to an observer measuring such mass in the same sector where it lays in, that mass always appears positive. This introduces the concept of apparent gravitational mass. Fundamentally, a mass is not "positive" or "negative"; it is both. Its sign depends on from "which side" we are measuring that mass. It is therefore a purely relative concept. Same thing for the "positive" and "negative" sectors: we call our sector the "positive" one simply because it is the one we live in, and we have to name both. But this is only a sign convention.

    • Corey Patterson
      Corey Patterson 3 months ago

      Consider the classic rubber sheet example used in the perpetual motion episode of PBS Spacetime. The analogy is of space-time to a sheet, and when masses like bowling balls are introduced it warps to create curvature. A marble shot in a straight line past a bowling ball on this sheet would follow an apparently straight path on a curved plane, a geodesic. According to the most theories, negative (or inverted) masses follow the same geodesics as positive masses since there is only one metric tensor. However negative masses imply a negative curvature, which gives rise to an "anti-gravitational" effect. So the negative-mass-marbles slide along the sheet, but "pull" the sheet as they move. This poses obvious problems when they begin rolling towards a bowling ball. Because the sheet is continually pulled towards them, the warped state of space stays constant and the motion continues perpetually. This was addressed in both videos concerning negative masses, and is commonly known as the "runaway motion". This definitely violates the crackpot conjecture, so we need to find an explanation that works more reasonably.
      Let's change the situation slightly; think about how we might get the same anti-gravitational effect without invoking strange counter-intuitive "negative mass marbles". Perhaps we could use similarly sized spherical balloons filled with various lifting gasses to represent different negative masses of different densities? Immediately we can see the behavior is not so strange as long as the marbles and balloons are on opposite sides of the sheet. Then it becomes intuitive that the balloons, who want to ascend, will push away the marbles, who want to descend, as they both respectively warp the sheet. We can see that the balloons will aggregate as they all "fall" up towards the steepest hill, and marbles will aggregate as they fall into the deepest wells. And because they are on opposite sides of the sheet, they can roll right past each other as they attempt to find their spot. In essence, like attracts like and opposites repel. In order to get something that works like this, the marbles and balloons must be on opposite sides, meaning they're following different geodesics.

    • Corey Patterson
      Corey Patterson 3 months ago

      For the future readers too lazy to google, here’s a brief argument:
      The issue begins with the Poincare group. According to dynamical group theory, the action of elements of this group on movements in space-time result in some movements which follow a time reversal, they appear to be going "backwards through time". Modern physicists use the restricted Poincare group, limited to only orthocronous movements, and therefore ignore this issue. In group theory, however, the T operator is real and we can explore retrochronic movements. Smarter people than me (namely Jean-Marie Souriau) have shown, using maths I can only begin to understand, that using the full Poincare group, time reversal goes with mass and energy inversion. In quantum field theory, the T operator acting on Hilbert spaces is complex, and can be either linear and unitary, or anti-linear and anti-unitary; but is arbitrarily chosen anti-linear and anti-unitary in order to prevent inversion of energy, as the vacuum state of the Zero-point energy must have the lowest possible ground state and can not have negative values. But when this axiom was formulated, the accelerating expansion of the universe, which implies a negative pressure, was not known yet. As pressure is a volumetric energy density, it seems sensible to reconsider how we view negative energy states.
      So at least the idea of mass inversion is not entirely without precedent. There is at least some mathematical precedent for negative masses...